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  • CLASSES

    Respiratory Long-Acting Beta-2 Agonists (LABA)

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Inhaled long-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist (LABA); given once-daily
    Used for the maintenance treatment of COPD in adults
    Not indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm or for the treatment of asthma

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    ARCAPTA NEOHALER

    HOW SUPPLIED

    ARCAPTA NEOHALER Respiratory (Inhalation) Pwd: 75mcg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (e.g., chronic bronchitis or emphysema).
    Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation powder; e.g., Arcapta Neohaler)
    Adults

    75 mcg (contents of 1 capsule) via oral inhalation once daily at the same time every day is the recommended and max dose. Not indicated to treat acute exacerbations of COPD and should not be used for the relief of acute bronchospasm; use a short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) for rescue therapy. Indacaterol significantly improves exacerbation rates, breathlessness, and health status in patients with COPD. According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines for COPD, long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) may be used as initial monotherapy in patients in Groups A and B. In Group C patients, long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are preferred as initial therapy over LABAs due to effectiveness in preventing exacerbations. In Group D patients, LABAs are used as initial therapy in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or LAMAs. At follow-up, if the patient is still experiencing dyspnea, consider switching inhaler device and investigate for other causes of dyspnea. If the patient has exacerbations, consider triple therapy with a LAMA, a LABA, and ICS.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    75 mcg/day by inhalation.

    Geriatric

    75 mcg/day by inhalation.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    No dosage adjustments are needed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Indacaterol has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment; specific guidelines for dose adjustment are not available. As this drug undergoes hepatic metabolism, drug accumulation may be possible in patients with severe impairment.

    Renal Impairment

    No dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Inhalation Administration
    Oral Inhalation Administration

    NOTE: Instruct patients that indacaterol is not intended to treat acute bronchospasm (see Precautions).
    Dry powder inhalation (Arcapta Neohaler):
    For oral inhalation use only. Instruct patients to NOT swallow the capsules.
    Always use the Neohaler Inhaler to administer Arcapta capsules. This inhaler should not be used with any other medication. Do NOT use with a spacer.
    To administer, use dry hands to remove a capsule from the blister pack immediately before use and place into the capsule chamber of the Neohaler inhaler. Click the inhaler closed. Do not place capsule into the mouthpiece. Then holding the inhaler upright, depress buttons fully one time to pierce capsule; a click will be heard. Have patient breathe out fully away from inhaler, place inhaler in the mouth with lips closed around the mouthpiece and buttons positioned to the left and right (not up and down), then breathe deeply, rapidly, and steadily in through the inhaler. A whirring sound should be heard; if no sound is heard, check the chamber as the capsule may be stuck. Gently tap the base of the device to loosen capsule if necessary. After inhalation, the patients should hold the breath as long as comfortable while removing inhaler from the mouth. Check the chamber to see if any powder remains in the capsule; repeat inhalation steps until no powder remains. Most patients can empty the capsule in one or two inhalations. After administration, open chamber and discard the empty capsule by tipping out.
    Advise all patients that coughing after administration is not problematic; as long as the capsule is empty the full dose has been administered.
    Occasionally the gelatin capsule might break into very small pieces which pass through the inhaler screen and reach the mouth. Accidental inhalation or ingestion of these pieces is harmless. Piercing capsule more than once increases risk of shattering capsule.
    Do not wash inhaler; keep it dry. Although cleaning is not necessary, if desired, a clean, dry lint-free cloth or soft brush may be used to wipe out the inhaler.
    Use the new inhaler provided with each new prescription.
    To avoid the spread of infection, do not share inhaler device.

    STORAGE

    ARCAPTA NEOHALER:
    - Product should always be stored in the blister and only removed immediately before use
    - Protect from light
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    - Store in a dry place

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Do not exceed recommended dosages of beta-agonists; fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma. The exact cause of death is unknown, but cardiac arrest after an unexpected development of a severe acute asthmatic crisis and subsequent hypoxia is suspected.

    Asthma, monotherapy treatment of asthma

    Indacaterol is not indicated for the treatment of asthma. All long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs), including indacaterol, are contraindicated for monotherapy treatment of asthma and, in patients with asthma, must be used with a long-term asthma controller medication (i.e., inhaled corticosteroid).

    Acute bronchospasm, asthma-related death, paradoxical bronchospasm

    Like other inhaled beta-agonists, indacaterol can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, discontinue this medication immediately, provide necessary supportive care, and institute alternative therapy. LABAs, such as indacaterol, increase the risk of asthma-related death when used without inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs); this is considered a class effect. No study adequate to determine whether the rate of asthma-related death is increased in patients treated with indacaterol has been conducted. LABAs should only be used in conjunction with ICSs for asthma; studies have found that the combined use of LABA/ICS does not increase the risk for serious asthma-related events. indacaterol should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms (i.e., as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute bronchospasm) of COPD and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA). indacaterol should not be initiated in patients during rapidly deteriorating or potentially life-threatening episodes of COPD. Available data do not suggest an increased risk of death with use of LABA in patients with COPD; however, the drug has not been studied in patients with acutely deteriorating COPD. It is crucial to inform patients of this and prescribe an inhaled SABA (e.g., albuterol), for rescue treatment of an acute attack as well as to warn them that increasing inhaled SABA use is a signal of deteriorating disease. Loss of symptom control with indacaterol is also a marker of deterioration of disease; in this setting a re-evaluation of the patient and the COPD treatment regimen should be undertaken at once. Increasing the daily dose of indacaterol beyond the recommended dose is not appropriate in this situation. Furthermore, patients should not use indacaterol more often than recommended, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other LABAs as this would be considered duplicative therapy and may lead to additive untoward effects. Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma.

    Alcoholism, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, coronary artery disease, females, heart failure, hypertension, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, long QT syndrome, malnutrition, myocardial infarction, QT prolongation, tachycardia

    Indacaterol should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders including ischemic cardiac disease (coronary artery disease), hypertension, or cardiac arrhythmias (including tachycardia). Indacaterol, like other beta-2 agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by increases in pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or cardiac symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of this medication at the recommended dose, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. Use indacaterol with caution in patients with cardiac disease or other conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including cardiac arrhythmias, congenital long QT syndrome, heart failure, bradycardia, myocardial infarction, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Females, elderly patients, patients with diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, malnutrition, alcoholism, or hepatic dysfunction may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation. No clinical meaningful QT-interval prolongations were observed in clinical study of indacaterol following multiple doses of 150 mcg, 300 mcg, and 600 mcg once daily for 2 weeks (n = 404); however, in other study beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. As with other beta-adrenergic agonist medications, indacaterol may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Correct pre-existing hypokalemia prior to beta-agonist administration.

    Hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, seizure disorder, seizures, thyroid disease, thyrotoxicosis

    Use indacaterol cautiously in patients with hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis, thyroid disease), pheochromocytoma, unusual responsiveness to other sympathomimetic amines, or history of seizures (seizure disorder).

    Diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis

    Use indacaterol with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus as inhalation of high doses of beta-2 agonists may produce increases in plasma glucose. Intravenous use of albuterol has been reported to aggravate pre-existing diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis. Further, clinically notable changes in blood glucose occurred infrequently during pre-marketing clinical studies of this medication. Indacaterol has not been investigated in patients whose diabetes mellitus is not well controlled.

    Milk protein hypersensitivity

    Indacaterol is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to indacaterol or to any of the ingredients; immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur following administration. If signs of an allergic reaction (specifically, difficulties in breathing or swallowing, swelling of tongue, lips and face, urticaria, skin rash) occur, discontinue indacaterol immediately and institute alternative therapy. In addition, use the indacaterol product, Arcapta Neohaler, with caution in patients with milk protein hypersensitivity as trace amounts of milk protein are contained within the drug carrier. In post-marketing experience of another lactose-containing inhaler (Serevent Diskus), there have been reports of anaphylaxis in patients with severe milk protein allergy and use of that product is contraindicated in such patients.

    MAOI therapy

    Administer beta-2 agonists, including indacaterol, with extreme caution to patients who have received MAOI therapy, tricyclic antidepressants, or medications known to prolong the QTc interval (see Drug Interactions). Concurrent use may potentiate cardiovascular adverse effects.

    Hepatic disease

    Indacaterol is predominately eliminated by hepatic metabolism, and should be used with caution in patients with severe hepatic disease. Drug accumulation may be possible. In pre-marketing clinical trials of indacaterol, patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment showed no relevant changes in Cmax or AUC, nor did protein binding differ between mild and moderate hepatically impaired subjects and their healthy controls. Studies in subjects with severe hepatic impairment were not performed.

    Children, infants

    Indacaterol is not indicated for use in neonates, infants, children, or adolescents under the age of 18 years. The safety and effectiveness of this medication in pediatric patients have not been established.

    Labor, pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women; indacaterol should only be used during pregnancy if the expected benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. Animal studies have not shown evidence of teratogenic effects; however, use with caution in pregnancy since animal data are not always predictive of human response. Women should contact their physician if they become pregnant while taking indacaterol. It is known that improved maternal and perinatal outcomes are achieved with optimal control of asthma during pregnancy. Large studies of women with asthma have confirmed the lack of relationship between the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists and adverse maternal or fetal outcomes; however, fewer data are available for long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) such as indacaterol vs. short-acting beta agonists (SABAs). However, most inhaled beta-2 agonists are considered acceptable for use during pregnancy because of the low bioavailability and maternal serum levels after use. During pregnancy, the use of another LABA, such as salmeterol or formoterol, with which there is more experience during pregnancy may be preferable. The use of indacaterol during labor and obstetric delivery has not been studied. Because of the potential for beta agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of indacaterol during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

    Breast-feeding

    There are no data on the presence of indacaterol or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, indacaterol and its metabolites were detected in the milk of lactating rats. Most inhaled bronchodilators are considered acceptable for use during the postpartum period and during breast-feeding because of the low bioavailability and maternal serum levels after use. Use of another LABA, such as salmeterol or formoterol, with which there is more experience during lactation may be preferable. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition.

    Geriatric

    No overall differences in indacaterol effectiveness were observed during clinical trials, and in the 3-month pooled data the adverse drug reaction profile was similar in the older adult population compared to the overall population studied. When treated at higher doses (300 mcg and 600 mcg) over the course of a year, the adverse drug reaction profile for geriatric patients was similar to that of the general patient population. Geriatric patients may be more sensitive to the side effects of beta-agonists, especially tremor and tachycardia. Although not clearly established, airway responsiveness to inhaled beta-agonists may also change with age. Elderly patients may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The OBRA guidelines caution that inhaled beta-agonists, such as indacaterol, can cause restlessness, increased heart rate, and anxiety.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    bronchospasm / Rapid / Incidence not known
    asthma-related death / Delayed / Incidence not known
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    ventricular tachycardia / Early / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hyperglycemia / Delayed / 0-9.9
    hypertension / Early / 0.7-1.7
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0.2-1.2
    hypokalemia / Delayed / 0-0.2
    diabetes mellitus / Delayed / 2.0
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    wheezing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) / Early / Incidence not known
    ST-T wave changes / Rapid / Incidence not known
    QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Mild

    cough / Delayed / 6.5-24.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 5.3-5.3
    headache / Early / 5.1-5.1
    nausea / Early / 2.4-2.4
    xerostomia / Early / 1.0-1.2
    tremor / Early / 0.5-0.5
    infection / Delayed / 2.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 2.0
    muscle cramps / Delayed / 2.0
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 2.0

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abarelix: (Major) Since abarelix can cause QT prolongation, abarelix should be used cautiously, if at all, with other drugs that are associated with QT prolongation. Prescribers need to weigh the potential benefits and risks of abarelix use in patients with prolonged QT syndrome or in patients taking other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Agents associated with a lower, but possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) based on varying levels of documentation include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may cause cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Aclidinium; Formoterol: (Major) Formoterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist for any reason, as overdose may result. Coadministration can result in overdosage. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking formoterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if formoterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual. Use formoterol and drugs known to prolong the QTc interval together with extreme caution; this combination may increase the risk of cardiovascular effects and ventricular arrhythmias; this includes combination with other beta-agonists.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of indacaterol if coadministration with apalutamide is necessary. Indacaterol is a substrate of CYP3A4, UGT, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer, as well as an inducer of UGT and a weak P-gp inducer.
    Arformoterol: (Major) Indacaterol; glycopyrrolate should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist, such as arformoterol, for any reason, as overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol; glycopyrrolate. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol; glycopyrrolate no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Beta-adrenergic blockers: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Major) Formoterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist for any reason, as overdose may result. Coadministration can result in overdosage. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking formoterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if formoterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual. Use formoterol and drugs known to prolong the QTc interval together with extreme caution; this combination may increase the risk of cardiovascular effects and ventricular arrhythmias; this includes combination with other beta-agonists.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Major) Formoterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist for any reason, as overdose may result. Coadministration can result in overdosage. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking formoterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if formoterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual. Use formoterol and drugs known to prolong the QTc interval together with extreme caution; this combination may increase the risk of cardiovascular effects and ventricular arrhythmias; this includes combination with other beta-agonists.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists and loop diuretics with caution due to risk for ECG changes and/or hypokalemia. The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from administration of loop diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded.
    Bupivacaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Cisapride: (Contraindicated) QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes (TdP) and death, have been reported with cisapride. Because of the potential for TdP, use of other drugs that might increase the QT interval is contraindicated with cisapride. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Cocaine: (Moderate) Additive effects and increased toxicity might be observed when using cocaine with beta-agonists, which are sympathomimetic agents. The combined use of these agents may have the potential for additive adrenergic stimulation and side effects, such as nervousness, insomnia, palpitations, or adverse cardiovascular effects.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if coadministered with dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir. By inhibiting CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, ritonavir alters indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with ritonavir (300 mg bid for 7.5 days) resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in indacaterol AUC(0 to 24) whereas indacaterol Cmax was unaffected. In addition, indaceterol is a substrate for uridine glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Ombitasvir, dasabuvir, and paritaprevir are UGT1A1 inhibitors, while ritonavir and paritaprevir are P-gp inhibitors. Monitor the patient clinically for tremor, palpitations, or increased heart rate. (Moderate) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and ritonavir are used concurrently. Monitor the patient clinically for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate. In addition, both ritonavir and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) are associated with QT prolongation; concomitant use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. By inhibiting CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein, ritonavir reduces indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with ritonavir (300 mg twice daily for 7.5 days) resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in indacaterol exposure (AUC) whereas indacaterol maximal concentration (Cmax) was unaffected.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Diethylpropion: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dobutamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dopamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Doxapram: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Dyphylline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of indacaterol and dyphylline may potentiate the hypokalemic effect of indacaterol. Monitor the patient appropriately and consider checking serum potassium concentrations if clinically indicated.
    Dyphylline; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of indacaterol and dyphylline may potentiate the hypokalemic effect of indacaterol. Monitor the patient appropriately and consider checking serum potassium concentrations if clinically indicated.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists and loop diuretics with caution due to risk for ECG changes and/or hypokalemia. The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from administration of loop diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist, such as salmeterol for any reason, as overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used with vilanterol for any reason, as sympathomimetic overdose and additive anticholinergic effects may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used with vilanterol for any reason, as sympathomimetic overdose and additive anticholinergic effects may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Formoterol: (Major) Formoterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist for any reason, as overdose may result. Coadministration can result in overdosage. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking formoterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if formoterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual. Use formoterol and drugs known to prolong the QTc interval together with extreme caution; this combination may increase the risk of cardiovascular effects and ventricular arrhythmias; this includes combination with other beta-agonists.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Major) Formoterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist for any reason, as overdose may result. Coadministration can result in overdosage. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking formoterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if formoterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual. Use formoterol and drugs known to prolong the QTc interval together with extreme caution; this combination may increase the risk of cardiovascular effects and ventricular arrhythmias; this includes combination with other beta-agonists.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, is recommended during coadministration. Plasma concentrations of indacaterol may be elevated when administered concurrently with fostamatinib. Fostamatinib is a CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitor, while indacaterol is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists and loop diuretics with caution due to risk for ECG changes and/or hypokalemia. The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from administration of loop diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Major) Formoterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist for any reason, as overdose may result. Coadministration can result in overdosage. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking formoterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if formoterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual. Use formoterol and drugs known to prolong the QTc interval together with extreme caution; this combination may increase the risk of cardiovascular effects and ventricular arrhythmias; this includes combination with other beta-agonists.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Halofantrine: (Contraindicated) Halofantrine is considered to have a well-established risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Halofantrine should be avoided in patients receiving drugs which may induce QT prolongation. These drugs include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with cardiovascular effects, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with indacaterol may result in increased serum concentrations of indacaterol. Indacaterol is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists with caution in patients receiving concomitant monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days of stopping treatment with MAOIs because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg/day indacaterol dose is needed, avoid use if possible. Consider alternatives. By inhibiting CYP3A4 and P-gp, itraconazole inhibits indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol inhalation powder 300 mcg (single dose) with another systemic azole antifungal with similar CYP3A4/P-gp activity caused a 1.9-fold increase in indacaterol exposure (AUC), and a 1.3-fold increase in indacaterol maximal concentration (Cmax). This may result in indacaterol side effects like tremor, nervousness, or a fast, irregular heart rate. Itraconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with itraconazole include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Monitor for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate, if indacaterol is coadministered with ketoconazole. Concurrent use may increase indacaterol exposure, although such increases in indacaterol exposure are unlikely to require any dose adjustment. Indacaterol is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate; ketoconazole is a strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitor. In drug interaction studies, coadministration with ketoconazole caused an approximately 2-fold increase in indacaterol exposure.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Levoketoconazole: (Moderate) Monitor for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate, if indacaterol is coadministered with ketoconazole. Concurrent use may increase indacaterol exposure, although such increases in indacaterol exposure are unlikely to require any dose adjustment. Indacaterol is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate; ketoconazole is a strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitor. In drug interaction studies, coadministration with ketoconazole caused an approximately 2-fold increase in indacaterol exposure.
    Levothyroxine: (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease.
    Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease.
    Lidocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Linezolid: (Moderate) Linezolid may enhance the hypertensive effect of beta-agonists. Closely monitor for increased blood pressure during coadministration. Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak, reversible nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Therefore, linezolid has the potential for interaction with adrenergic agents, such as the beta-agonists.
    Liothyronine: (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Lonafarnib: (Moderate) Monitor for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate, if indacaterol is coadministered with lonafarnib. Concurrent use may increase indacaterol exposure, although such increases in indacaterol exposure are unlikely to require any dose adjustment. Indacaterol is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate; lonafarnib is a P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol inhalation powder 300 mcg (single dose) with another dual strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitor caused an approximately 2-fold increase in indacaterol exposure.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists and loop diuretics with caution due to risk for ECG changes and/or hypokalemia. The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from administration of loop diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and ritonavir are used concurrently. Monitor the patient clinically for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate. In addition, both ritonavir and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) are associated with QT prolongation; concomitant use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. By inhibiting CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein, ritonavir reduces indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with ritonavir (300 mg twice daily for 7.5 days) resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in indacaterol exposure (AUC) whereas indacaterol maximal concentration (Cmax) was unaffected.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter the systemic exposure of indacaterol; use together with caution. Indacaterol is a substrate of CYP3A4 and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data suggests lumacaftor; ivacaftor may also induce and/or inhibit P-gp. While the induction of indacaterol through the CYP3A pathway may lead to decreased plasma concentrations of indacaterol, the net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on P-gp transport is not clear.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Mesoridazine: (Contraindicated) Mesoridazine is associated with an established risk of QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (TdP). Agents that prolong the QT interval could lead to torsade de pointes are contraindicated with mesoridazine and include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia.
    Methacholine: (Major) Discontinue use of indacaterol 48 hours before a methacholine challenge test. Beta-agonists inhibit the airway response to methacholine.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Methylphenidate: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Midodrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Mirabegron: (Minor) Mirabegron is a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor. Exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 isoenzymes such as indacaterol may be increased when administered with mirabegron. Therefore, appropriate monitoring and dose adjustment may be necessary.
    Mitotane: (Major) Use caution if mitotane and indacaterol are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of indacaterol and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and indacaterol is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of indacaterol.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists with caution in patients receiving concomitant monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days of stopping treatment with MAOIs because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and ritonavir are used concurrently. Monitor the patient clinically for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate. In addition, both ritonavir and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) are associated with QT prolongation; concomitant use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. By inhibiting CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein, ritonavir reduces indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with ritonavir (300 mg twice daily for 7.5 days) resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in indacaterol exposure (AUC) whereas indacaterol maximal concentration (Cmax) was unaffected.
    Norepinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Olodaterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist, such as olodaterol, for any reason, as overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and ritonavir are used concurrently. Monitor the patient clinically for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate. In addition, both ritonavir and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) are associated with QT prolongation; concomitant use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. By inhibiting CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein, ritonavir reduces indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with ritonavir (300 mg twice daily for 7.5 days) resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in indacaterol exposure (AUC) whereas indacaterol maximal concentration (Cmax) was unaffected.
    Pemoline: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Phendimetrazine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists with caution in patients receiving concomitant monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days of stopping treatment with MAOIs because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Procarbazine has MAOI activity and the cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. Although no data are available, procarbazine may interact similarly. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-agonists are administered within two weeks of stopping the MAOI.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Racepinephrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) The concomitant use of rasagiline and sympathomimetic agents was not allowed in clinical studies; therefore, caution is advised during concurrent use of rasagiline and respiratory adrenergic agents (e.g., the beta-agonists). Although sympathomimetic agents are contraindicated for use with traditional non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), hypertensive reactions generally are not expected to occur during concurrent use with rasagiline because of the selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition of rasagiline at manufacturer recommended doses. However, the cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. At least one case of hypertension occurred in a patient with previous episodes of high blood pressure who was receiving albuterol and selegiline, a selective MAOI related to rasagiline, concurrently. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-2 agonists are administered during or within 2 weeks of use of an MAOI.
    Ribociclib: (Moderate) Due to a possible risk for QT prolongation, ribociclib and long-acting beta-agonists should be used together cautiously. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval like ribociclib. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists such as indacaterol as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Moderate) Due to a possible risk for QT prolongation, ribociclib and long-acting beta-agonists should be used together cautiously. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval like ribociclib. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists such as indacaterol as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Ritodrine: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and ritonavir are used concurrently. Monitor the patient clinically for beta-agonist side effects like tremor, nervousness, or fast, irregular heart rate. In addition, both ritonavir and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) are associated with QT prolongation; concomitant use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. By inhibiting CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein, ritonavir reduces indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with ritonavir (300 mg twice daily for 7.5 days) resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in indacaterol exposure (AUC) whereas indacaterol maximal concentration (Cmax) was unaffected.
    Salmeterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist, such as salmeterol for any reason, as overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Serdexmethylphenidate; Dexmethylphenidate: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Simeprevir is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and a CYP3A4 inhibitor, and might increase the concentrations and AUC of indacaterol, which is a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate. When indacaterol has been administered with dual CYP3A4/P-gp inhibitors, the AUC has increased by 1.4- to 1.9-fold, depending on the agent used. An increase in maximal concentrations may also occur. Monitor patients for adverse effects of indacaterol, such as nervousness, tremor, and increased heart rate.
    Sympathomimetics: (Moderate) Administer sympathomimetics with caution with beta-agonists such as indacaterol. The cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use. Monitor the patient for tremors, nervousness, increased heart rate, or other additive side effects.
    Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) Beta-agonists are commonly used in conjunction with aminophylline or theophylline therapy. Concomitant use can cause additive CNS stimulation; some patients may experience tremor or nervousness with combined use. More serious effects are rare, but may result in additive cardiovascular effects such as increased blood pressure and heart rate. Methylxanthine derivatives, ((e.g., theophylline and aminophylline) may rarely aggravate the hypokalemic effect seen with beta-agonists. Consider checking potassium levels if clinically indicated. (Moderate) Beta-agonists are commonly used in conjunction with aminophylline or theophylline therapy. Concomitant use can cause additive CNS stimulation; some patients may experience tremor or nervousness with combined use. More serious effects are rare, but may result in additive cardiovascular effects such as increased blood pressure and heart rate. Methylxanthine derivatives, (e.g., theophylline, aminophylline) may rarely aggravate the hypokalemic effect seen with beta-agonists. Consider checking potassium levels if clinically indicated.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Minor) Hypokalemia associated with thiazide diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is unknown, use caution when coadministering beta-agonists with thiazide diuretics and monitor serum potassium as clinically indicated.
    Thyroid hormones: (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patient's lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used.
    Tiotropium; Olodaterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used in conjunction with other medications containing a long-acting beta-2 agonist, such as olodaterol, for any reason, as overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists and loop diuretics with caution due to risk for ECG changes and/or hypokalemia. The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from administration of loop diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Minor) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and verapamil are used concurrently. By inhibiting CYP3A4 and P-gp, verapamil alters indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with verapamil (80 mcg 3 times daily for 4 days) resulted in a 2-fold increase in indacaterol AUC (0-24), and 1.5-fold increase in indacaterol Cmax.
    Tranylcypromine: (Moderate) Use beta-agonists with caution in patients receiving concomitant monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or within 14 days of stopping treatment with MAOIs because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated.
    Tucatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for indacaterol-related adverse effects, such as headache, nervousness, tremor, or cardiovascular effects, during coadministration with tucatinib. Concurrent use may increase plasma concentrations of indacaterol. Indacaterol is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; tucatinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and P-gp inhibitor. Coadministration with other dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp has increased exposure of indacaterol from 1.4- to 1.9- fold.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Major) Indacaterol should not be used with vilanterol for any reason, as sympathomimetic overdose and additive anticholinergic effects may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) such as albuterol. SABAs should not be used on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) while taking indacaterol. Increasing SABA use is a sign of deteriorating disease for which prompt medical attention is required. Prompt re-evaluation of the patient and their COPD treatment regimen should occur if indacaterol no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction, the patient's SABA rescue becomes less effective, or the patient requires more SABA rescue doses than usual.
    Verapamil: (Minor) Although no dosage adjustment of the 75 mcg indacaterol daily dose is needed, use caution if indacaterol and verapamil are used concurrently. By inhibiting CYP3A4 and P-gp, verapamil alters indacaterol metabolism. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of indacaterol 300 mcg (single dose) with verapamil (80 mcg 3 times daily for 4 days) resulted in a 2-fold increase in indacaterol AUC (0-24), and 1.5-fold increase in indacaterol Cmax.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women; indacaterol should only be used during pregnancy if the expected benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. Animal studies have not shown evidence of teratogenic effects; however, use with caution in pregnancy since animal data are not always predictive of human response. Women should contact their physician if they become pregnant while taking indacaterol. It is known that improved maternal and perinatal outcomes are achieved with optimal control of asthma during pregnancy. Large studies of women with asthma have confirmed the lack of relationship between the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists and adverse maternal or fetal outcomes; however, fewer data are available for long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) such as indacaterol vs. short-acting beta agonists (SABAs). However, most inhaled beta-2 agonists are considered acceptable for use during pregnancy because of the low bioavailability and maternal serum levels after use. During pregnancy, the use of another LABA, such as salmeterol or formoterol, with which there is more experience during pregnancy may be preferable. The use of indacaterol during labor and obstetric delivery has not been studied. Because of the potential for beta agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of indacaterol during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Indacaterol is an agonist at beta-2 receptors. These receptors are present in large numbers in the lungs and are located on bronchiolar smooth muscle. Stimulation of beta-2 receptors in the lung causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, which produces bronchodilation and a resultant increase in bronchial airflow. These effects are believed to be mediated, in part, by increased activity of adenyl cyclase, an intracellular enzyme responsible for the formation of cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
     
    Indacaterol has more than a 24-fold greater agonist activity at beta-2 receptors (primarily in the lung) than at beta-1 receptors (primarily in the heart). However, 10% to 50% of the beta receptors in the heart are beta-2 receptors. Even highly selective beta-2 receptor agonists may have adverse cardiovascular effects, such as tachycardia, palpitations, and ischemia. Other common adverse effects due to activation of beta-receptors include skeletal muscle tremors and cramps, insomnia, decreases in serum potassium, and increases in blood glucose.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Indacaterol is administered by oral inhalation. Protein binding is approximately 94 to 96%. In pharmacokinetic study of orally administered radiolabeled drug, unchanged indacaterol was the single largest form of the drug in serum, approximately 1/3 of total drug-related AUC over 24 hours. A hydroxylated derivative was the most prominent metabolite in serum. Glucuronate and dealkylate products, among other metabolites, were also identified. CYP3A4 is concluded to be the predominant isoenzyme responsible for hydroxylation; CYP1A1, CYP2D6, and UGT1A1 enzymes are also involved in metabolism to a minor extent. Elimination appears to be multi-phasic with an average terminal half-life of 45.5 to 126 hours. Renal elimination accounts for approximately 2 to 6% of systemic clearance; following oral administration, 90% or more of the dose was recovered fecally.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)
    Indacaterol is not likely to inhibit or induce the transport or metabolism of other drugs. CYP3A4 is the predominant isoenzyme responsible for the hydroxylation of indacaterol; indacaterol also has a low affinity for the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Drug interaction studies suggest potent and specific dual inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp (e.g., ketoconazole, erythromycin, verapamil, ritonavir) may increase indacaterol exposure; however, this inhibition does not result in a need for dose adjustment of the usual therapeutic inhalation doses (75 mcg/day) of indacaterol.

    Inhalation Route

    Following inhalation by patients with moderate to severe COPD, a change in FEV-1 has been seen within 5 minutes of 150 mcg or 300 mcg dose administration. Indacterol exerts a similar effect to albuterol use, and a statistically greater effect to either salmeterol-fluticasone (p < 0.001) or placebo (p < 0.001) use, as measured by FEV-1 at 5-minutes post-dose. The median time to reach peak serum concentrations of indacaterol is approximately 15 minutes after single or repeated oral inhalational doses. Absolute bioavailability of the inhaled drug is 43—45%, from both pulmonary and intestinal absorption. Indacaterol serum concentrations increase with repeated once-daily administration. Steady-state concentrations are achieved within 12 to 15 days.