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    Opioid Agonists

    BOXED WARNING

    Accidental exposure, alcoholism, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication, parenteral administration, potential for overdose or poisoning, requires an experienced clinician

    Like all opioid analgesics, hydrocodone is associated with a significant potential for overdose or poisoning; proper patient selection and counseling is recommended. Extended-release hydrocodone is not intended for use in the management of pain following surgery, acute pain, or on an as-needed basis; it is intended only for patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period and requires an experienced clinician who is knowledgeable in the use of long-acting opioids for chronic pain. Further, the misuse of hydrocodone extended-release capsules or tablets by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product (parenteral administration) poses a significant risk to the abuser and may result in overdose and death. Hydrocodone should be kept out of the reach of pediatric patients, others for whom the drug was not prescribed, and pets as accidental exposure may cause respiratory failure and a fatal overdose. Consumption with ethanol will result in additive CNS depressant effects, and use with extended-release capsules will result in increased drug exposure that may cause a fatal overdose. Advise patients to avoid ethanol ingestion and ethanol intoxication, including the ingestion of alcohol contained in prescription or non-prescription medications, during therapy. Patients with alcoholism should be advised of this serious risk, or an alternative medication should be used.

    Depression, opioid overdose, opioid use disorder, substance abuse

    Hydrocodone is an opioid agonist and therefore has abuse potential and risk of fatal overdose from depressed respiration. Addiction may occur in patients who obtain hydrocodone illicitly or in those appropriately prescribed the drug. The risk of addiction in any individual is unknown. However, patients with mental illness (e.g., major depression) or a family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) have an increased risk of opioid abuse. Assess patients for risks of addiction, abuse, or misuse before drug initiation, and monitor patients who receive opioids routinely for development of these behaviors or conditions. A potential risk of abuse should not preclude appropriate pain management in any patient, but requires more intensive counseling and monitoring. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. To discourage abuse, the smallest appropriate quantity of hydrocodone should be dispensed, and proper disposal instructions for unused drug should be given to patients. Discuss the availability of naloxone with all patients and consider prescribing it in patients who are at increased risk of opioid overdose, such as patients who are also using other CNS depressants, who have a history of opioid use disorder (OUD), who have experienced a previous opioid overdose, or who have household members or other close contacts at risk for accidental ingestion or opioid overdose.

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, coma, cor pulmonale, emphysema, hypoxemia, obesity, pulmonary disease, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus

    Hydrocodone is contraindicated for use in patients with significant respiratory depression and in patients with acute or severe asthma (e.g., status asthmaticus) in unmonitored care settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Receipt of moderate hydrocodone doses in these patients may significantly decrease pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible, as this significantly increases the risk for profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; if concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Monitor patients closely for signs or symptoms of respiratory depression or sedation. In patients with pulmonary disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, emphysema, hypoxia, hypercapnia, respiratory insufficiency, upper airway obstruction, or preexisting respiratory depression, it is recommended that non-opioid analgesics be considered as alternatives to hydrocodone, as even usual therapeutic doses of hydrocodone may decrease respiratory drive and cause apnea in these patient populations. Extreme caution should also be used in patients with chronic asthma, kyphoscoliosis (a type of scoliosis), hypoxemia, or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Patients with advanced age, debilitation, or sleep apnea are at an increased risk for the development of respiratory depression associated with hydrocodone. Use with caution in patients with obesity as this is a risk factor for obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome and/or decreased respiratory reserve. Opioids increase the risk of central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia in a dose-dependent fashion. Consider decreasing the opioid dosage in patients with CSA. Hydrocodone should not be used during impaired consciousness or coma, as significant decreases in respiratory drive may lead to adverse intracranial effects from carbon dioxide retention. Respiratory depression, if left untreated, may cause respiratory arrest and death. Symptoms of respiratory depression include a reduced urge to breathe, a decreased respiratory rate, or deep breaths separated by long pauses (a "sighing" breathing pattern). Carbon dioxide retention from respiratory depression may also worsen opioid sedating effects. Management of respiratory depression should include observation, necessary supportive measures, and opioid antagonist use when indicated. Careful monitoring is required, particularly when CYP450 3A4 inhibitors or inducers are used concomitantly; concurrent use of a CYP3A4 inhibitor or discontinuation of a concurrently used CYP3A4 inducer may increase plasma hydrocodone concentrations and potentiate the risk of fatal respiratory depression.

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    There are no data or data are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage with hydrocodone use in human pregnancy. In animal studies, hydrocodone administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis, gestation, or lactation resulted in decreased body weight of offspring, reduced nursing behavior, increased post-implantation loss, and non-viable litters at doses approximately 2- to 3-fold human hydrocodone doses of 100 to 180 mg/day; decreases in survival were seen in the offspring of rats given hydrocodone during gestation and lactation at doses equivalent to a human dose of 180 mg/day and above. Fetal malformations including increases in umbilical hernias, irregularly shaped bones, and delays in fetal skeletal maturation occurred with doses equivalent to 15 times an adult human dose of 100 mg/day. Hydrocodone is not recommended for use in women during and immediately prior to labor and obstetric delivery because oral opioid agonists may cause respiratory depression in the newborn. Opioid analgesics can prolong labor by reducing the strength and frequency of uterine contractions; however, this effect may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation. Further, prolonged maternal use of long-acting opioids, such as hydrocodone, during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). This syndrome can be life-threatening. Severe symptoms may require pharmacologic therapy managed by clinicians familiar with neonatal opioid withdrawal. Monitor the neonate for withdrawal symptoms including irritability, hyperactivity, abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched crying, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx, schedule II

    DESCRIPTION

    Extended-release, oral semisynthetic opioid agonist similar to other phenanthrene derivatives such as codeine
    Used for severe pain requiring daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment for which alternative treatment options are inadequate
    Abuse deterrent properties

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Hysingla ER, Zohydro

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Hysingla ER Oral Tab ER: 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 60mg, 80mg, 100mg, 120mg
    Zohydro Oral Cap ER: 10mg, 15mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 50mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of chronic, severe pain in patients who require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment.
    NOTE: Reserve extended-release hydrocodone for patients in whom alternative treatment options (e.g., nonopioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain. Discontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs upon initiation of hydrocodone extended-release.
    NOTE: Do not use Vantrela ER 90 mg tablets in opioid-naive patients. Single doses of Vantrela ER more than 60 mg or a total daily dose more than 120 mg are for use in opioid-tolerant patients only. Single doses of Zohydro ER capsules of more than 40 mg or a total daily dose of more than 80 mg are for use in opioid-tolerant patients only. Limit total daily doses of Hysingla ER tablets of 80 mg or more to opioid-tolerant patients. Opioid-tolerant patients are defined as those taking, for a minimum of 1 week, oral morphine 60 mg or more per day; oral oxycodone 30 mg or more per day; oral hydromorphone 8 mg or more per day; oral oxymorphone 25 mg or more per day; transdermal fentanyl 25 mcg or more per hour; oral hydrocodone 60 mg or more per day; or an equivalent dose of another opioid.
    Oral dosage for use as the first opioid analgesic or in patients who are not opioid-tolerant (Zohydro ER and generic equivalents ONLY)
    Adults

    10 mg PO every 12 hours. Titrate dose by 10 mg every 12 hours as appropriate every 3 to 7 days. To discontinue, reduce the dose gradually according to the taper schedule provided in the FDA-approved product labeling.

    Oral dosage for conversion from fentanyl transdermal patch (Zohydro ER and generic equivalents ONLY)
    Adults

    10 mg PO every 12 hours for each 25 mcg/hour fentanyl transdermal patch beginning 18 hours after removal of the fentanyl patch. Titrate dose by 10 mg every 12 hours as appropriate every 3 to 7 days as needed. To discontinue, reduce the dose gradually according to the taper schedule provided in the FDA-approved product labeling.

    Oral dosage for conversion from other oral opioid analgesics (Zohydro ER and generic equivalents ONLY)
    Adults

    Calculate the total daily dose(s) of the prior opioid(s), then using conversion factor, determine total daily extended-release hydrocodone dose. If regimen includes more than 1 opioid, sum converted totals. Reduce the calculated daily hydrocodone dose by 25%. Divide the 24-hour hydrocodone requirements into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate available strength of hydrocodone extended-release capsules. Titrate dose by 10 mg every 12 hours as appropriate every 3 to 7 days. Use extreme caution when converting patients from methadone as the ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists can vary widely. To discontinue, reduce the dose gradually according to the taper schedule provided in the FDA-approved product labeling.

    Oral dosage for use as the first opioid analgesic or in patients who are not opioid-tolerant (Hysingla ER ONLY)
    Adults

    20 mg PO every 24 hours. Titrate dose by 10 to 20 mg as appropriate every 3 to 5 days. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days. The next dose should be at least 50% of the prior dose. After reaching a dose of 20 mg for 2 to 4 days, treatment may be discontinued.

    Oral dosage for conversion from fentanyl transdermal patch (Hysingla ER ONLY)
    Adults

    20 mg PO every 24 hours for each 25 mcg/hour fentanyl transdermal patch beginning 18 hours after removal of the fentanyl patch. Titrate dose by 10 to 20 mg as appropriate every 3 to 5 days. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days. The next dose should be at least 50% of the prior dose. After reaching a dose of 20 mg for 2 to 4 days, treatment may be discontinued.

    Oral dosage for conversion from buprenorphine transdermal patch (Hysingla ER Tablet ONLY)
    Adults

    20 mg PO every 24 hours. Titrate dose by 10 to 20 mg as appropriate every 3 to 5 days. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days. The next dose should be at least 50% of the prior dose. After reaching a dose of 20 mg for 2 to 4 days, treatment may be discontinued.

    Oral dosage for conversion from other oral opioid analgesics (Hysingla ER ONLY)
    Adults

    Calculate the total daily dose(s) of the prior opioid(s), then using conversion factor, determine total daily extended-release hydrocodone dose. If regimen includes more than 1 opioid, sum converted totals. Reduce the calculated daily oral hydrocodone dose by 25% and give the dose PO every 24 hours. Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate available strength of hydrocodone extended-release tablets. Titrate dose by 10 to 20 mg as appropriate every 3 to 5 days. Use extreme caution when converting patients from methadone as the ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists can vary widely. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days. The next dose should be at least 50% of the prior dose. After reaching a dose of 20 mg for 2 to 4 days, treatment may be discontinued.

    Oral dosage for use as the first opioid analgesic, in patients who are not opioid-tolerant, or for conversion from tramadol (Vantrela ER ONLY)
    Adults

    15 mg PO every 12 hours. Titrate to the next higher dose every 3 to 7 days as needed. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days.

    Oral dosage for conversion from other oral hydrocodone formulations (Vantrela ER only)
    Adults

    Convert to an equivalent total daily hydrocodone dose. Reduce the calculated daily oral hydrocodone dose by 50%, and then divide into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate available strength of hydrocodone extended-release tablets. Titrate to the next higher dose every 3 to 7 days as needed. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days.

    Oral dosage for conversion from fentanyl transdermal patch (Vantrela ER ONLY)
    Adults

    15 mg PO every 12 hours beginning 18 hours after removal of the fentanyl patch. Titrate to the next higher dose every 3 to 7 days as needed. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days.

    Oral dosage for conversion from other oral opioid analgesics (Vantrela ER ONLY)
    Adults

    Calculate the total daily dose(s) of the prior opioid(s), then using conversion factor, determine total daily extended-release hydrocodone dose. If regimen includes more than 1 opioid, sum converted totals. Divide the 24-hour hydrocodone requirements into 2 equal doses given PO every 12 hours. Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate available strength of hydrocodone extended-release tablets. Use extreme caution when converting patients from methadone as the ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists can vary widely. Titrate to the next higher dose every 3 to 7 days as needed. To discontinue, gradually decrease the dose by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days.

    For the treatment of refractory restless legs syndrome (RLS)†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    10 to 15 mg PO once daily, initially. Titrate based on efficacy and adverse effects. Usual dose: 20 to 45 mg/day. Longer-acting and controlled-release drugs are preferred, especially at night.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    Zohydro ER and Hysingla ER: There is no maximum dose of hydrocodone; however, careful titration of hydrocodone, especially in opioid-naive patients, is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.
    Vantrela ER: Do not exceed a dose of 180 mg/day PO because of a potential risk of QT prolongation.

    Geriatric

    Zohydro ER and Hysingla ER: There is no maximum dose of hydrocodone; however, careful titration of hydrocodone, especially in opioid-naive patients, is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression). Individualize dosage carefully.
    Vantrela ER: Do not exceed a dose of 180 mg/day PO because of a potential risk of QT prolongation.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Mild or moderate hepatic impairment: Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation.
    Zohydro ER and Hysingla ER: Use cautiously. No adjustment in starting dose is required.
    Vantrela ER: Initiate therapy with one-half of the starting dose. Use alternative analgesics in patients who require doses less than 15 mg.
     
    Severe hepatic impairment: Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation.
    Zohydro ER: Initiate therapy at the lowest dose of 10 mg every 12 hours.
    Hysingla ER: Initiate therapy with one-half of the starting dose.
    Vantrela ER: Use not recommended.

    Renal Impairment

    Mild renal impairment: Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation.
    Zohydro ER: Initiate therapy with a low initial dose.
    Hysingla ER and Vantrela ER: No adjustment in starting dose is required.
     
    Moderate to severe renal impairment, end-stage renal disease: Monitor closely for respiratory depression and sedation.
    Zohydro ER: Initiate therapy with a low initial dose.
    Hysingla ER: Initiate therapy with one-half of the starting dose.
    Vantrela ER: Initiate therapy with one-half of the starting dose. Use alternative analgesics in patients who require doses less than 15 mg.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Hydrocodone should be titrated from the initial recommended dosage to the dose required to relieve the patient's pain.
    There is no maximum dose of hydrocodone; however, careful titration is required until tolerance develops to some of the side effects (i.e., drowsiness and respiratory depression).
    Storage: Store hydrocodone in a location not accessible by others.
    Disposal: Flush unused hydrocodone down the toilet when it is no longer needed if a drug take-back option is not readily available.

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Extended-release capsules (Zohydro ER and generic equivalents):
    Administer whole, 1 capsule at a time, with enough water to completely swallow immediately after placing in the mouth.
    Crushing, chewing, or dissolving will result in uncontrolled delivery of hydrocodone and can lead to overdose or death.
    Inform patients that consumption of ethanol with hydrocodone extended-release capsules may result in increased plasma concentrations and a fatal overdose of hydrocodone.
    May be administered with or without food.
     
    Extended-release tablets (Hysingla ER, Vantrela ER):
    Administer whole, 1 tablet at a time, with enough water to completely swallow immediately after placing in the mouth.
    Crushing, chewing, or dissolving will result in uncontrolled delivery of hydrocodone and can lead to overdose or death.
    May be administered with or without food.
    Do not presoak, lick, or wet Hysingla ER tablets prior to placing in the mouth. A viscous hydrogel gradually forms when the tablet is exposed to water or other fluids, which may increase the risk of esophageal obstruction, dysphagia, and choking.

    STORAGE

    Hysingla ER:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Zohydro:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Accidental exposure, alcoholism, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication, parenteral administration, potential for overdose or poisoning, requires an experienced clinician

    Like all opioid analgesics, hydrocodone is associated with a significant potential for overdose or poisoning; proper patient selection and counseling is recommended. Extended-release hydrocodone is not intended for use in the management of pain following surgery, acute pain, or on an as-needed basis; it is intended only for patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period and requires an experienced clinician who is knowledgeable in the use of long-acting opioids for chronic pain. Further, the misuse of hydrocodone extended-release capsules or tablets by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product (parenteral administration) poses a significant risk to the abuser and may result in overdose and death. Hydrocodone should be kept out of the reach of pediatric patients, others for whom the drug was not prescribed, and pets as accidental exposure may cause respiratory failure and a fatal overdose. Consumption with ethanol will result in additive CNS depressant effects, and use with extended-release capsules will result in increased drug exposure that may cause a fatal overdose. Advise patients to avoid ethanol ingestion and ethanol intoxication, including the ingestion of alcohol contained in prescription or non-prescription medications, during therapy. Patients with alcoholism should be advised of this serious risk, or an alternative medication should be used.

    Depression, opioid overdose, opioid use disorder, substance abuse

    Hydrocodone is an opioid agonist and therefore has abuse potential and risk of fatal overdose from depressed respiration. Addiction may occur in patients who obtain hydrocodone illicitly or in those appropriately prescribed the drug. The risk of addiction in any individual is unknown. However, patients with mental illness (e.g., major depression) or a family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) have an increased risk of opioid abuse. Assess patients for risks of addiction, abuse, or misuse before drug initiation, and monitor patients who receive opioids routinely for development of these behaviors or conditions. A potential risk of abuse should not preclude appropriate pain management in any patient, but requires more intensive counseling and monitoring. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. To discourage abuse, the smallest appropriate quantity of hydrocodone should be dispensed, and proper disposal instructions for unused drug should be given to patients. Discuss the availability of naloxone with all patients and consider prescribing it in patients who are at increased risk of opioid overdose, such as patients who are also using other CNS depressants, who have a history of opioid use disorder (OUD), who have experienced a previous opioid overdose, or who have household members or other close contacts at risk for accidental ingestion or opioid overdose.

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, coma, cor pulmonale, emphysema, hypoxemia, obesity, pulmonary disease, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, sleep apnea, status asthmaticus

    Hydrocodone is contraindicated for use in patients with significant respiratory depression and in patients with acute or severe asthma (e.g., status asthmaticus) in unmonitored care settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Receipt of moderate hydrocodone doses in these patients may significantly decrease pulmonary ventilation. Additionally, avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible, as this significantly increases the risk for profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; if concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Monitor patients closely for signs or symptoms of respiratory depression or sedation. In patients with pulmonary disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, emphysema, hypoxia, hypercapnia, respiratory insufficiency, upper airway obstruction, or preexisting respiratory depression, it is recommended that non-opioid analgesics be considered as alternatives to hydrocodone, as even usual therapeutic doses of hydrocodone may decrease respiratory drive and cause apnea in these patient populations. Extreme caution should also be used in patients with chronic asthma, kyphoscoliosis (a type of scoliosis), hypoxemia, or paralysis of the phrenic nerve. Patients with advanced age, debilitation, or sleep apnea are at an increased risk for the development of respiratory depression associated with hydrocodone. Use with caution in patients with obesity as this is a risk factor for obstructive sleep-apnea syndrome and/or decreased respiratory reserve. Opioids increase the risk of central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia in a dose-dependent fashion. Consider decreasing the opioid dosage in patients with CSA. Hydrocodone should not be used during impaired consciousness or coma, as significant decreases in respiratory drive may lead to adverse intracranial effects from carbon dioxide retention. Respiratory depression, if left untreated, may cause respiratory arrest and death. Symptoms of respiratory depression include a reduced urge to breathe, a decreased respiratory rate, or deep breaths separated by long pauses (a "sighing" breathing pattern). Carbon dioxide retention from respiratory depression may also worsen opioid sedating effects. Management of respiratory depression should include observation, necessary supportive measures, and opioid antagonist use when indicated. Careful monitoring is required, particularly when CYP450 3A4 inhibitors or inducers are used concomitantly; concurrent use of a CYP3A4 inhibitor or discontinuation of a concurrently used CYP3A4 inducer may increase plasma hydrocodone concentrations and potentiate the risk of fatal respiratory depression.

    Acute abdomen, biliary tract disease, constipation, dysphagia, esophageal stricture, GI disease, GI obstruction, ileus, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis

    Hydrocodone extended-release capsules and tablets are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. Due to the effects of opioid agonists on the gastrointestinal tract, hydrocodone should be used cautiously in patients with GI disease, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with UC or other inflammatory bowel disease may be more sensitive to constipation caused by opioid agonists. Post-operative patients should be monitored for decreased bowel motility. Opioid agonists may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdomen. As with other opioid agonists, hydrocodone may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Hydrocodone should be used with caution in patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis. Esophageal obstruction, difficulty swallowing, and choking have been reported with the use of Hysingla ER tablets; instruct patients not to pre-soak, lick, or wet the tablet prior to placing in the mouth. Only 1 tablet should be taken at a time with enough water to ensure complete swallowing. Patients with dysphagia or underlying GI disease with small GI lumens (e.g., esophageal cancer, esophageal stricture, or colon cancer) may be at increased risk for developing these complications; consider use of an alternative analgesic in these patients.

    Opiate agonist hypersensitivity

    Although true opiate agonist hypersensitivity is rare, the use of hydrocodone is contraindicated in patients who have hydrocodone hypersensitivity.

    Geriatric

    Use hydrocodone with caution in geriatric or debilitated patients. Geriatric or debilitated patients are more susceptible to adverse reactions, especially sedation and respiratory depression, probably as a result of the altered distribution of the drug or decreased elimination. Initial doses may need to be reduced, and doses should be carefully titrated, taking into account analgesic effects, adverse reactions, and concomitant conditions or drugs that may increase CNS depression and depress respiration.[56303] According to the Beers Criteria, opiate agonists are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in geriatric patients with a history of falls or fractures and should be avoided in these patient populations, except in the setting of severe acute pain, since opiates can produce ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and additional falls. If an opiate must be used, consider reducing the use of other CNS-active medications that increase the risk of falls and fractures and implement strategies to reduce fall risk. In patients receiving palliative care or hospice, the balance of benefits and harms of medication management may differ from those of the general population of older adults.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). OBRA cautions that opioids may cause constipation, nausea, vomiting, sedation, lethargy, weakness, confusion, dysphoria, physical and psychological dependency, hallucinations, and unintended respiratory depression, especially in individuals with compromised pulmonary function. These adverse effects can lead to other consequences such as falls. The initiation of longer-acting opioids is not recommended unless shorter-acting opioids have been unsuccessful, or titration of shorter-acting doses has established a clear daily dose of opioid analgesic that can be provided by using a long-acting form.[60742]

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Do not abruptly discontinue hydrocodone in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Abrupt discontinuation of hydrocodone in physically dependent patients has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, suicide, and drug-seeking behavior. Consider the opioid dose, duration of therapy, type of pain being treated, and physical and psychological attributes of the patient when decreasing the opioid dose or discontinuing therapy. Ensure ongoing care of the physically opioid-dependent patient, including a multimodal approach to pain management, and devise an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals are clear and realistic. When discontinuing therapy due to suspected substance abuse, evaluate and treat the patient or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance abuse disorder. For physically opioid-dependent patients, decrease the hydrocodone dose by no more than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for shorter periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper. Reassess patients frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, if they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate may also occur. If withdrawal symptoms arise, pause the taper or increase the opioid dose to the previous dose, then proceed with a slow taper. Monitor patients for changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances. Avoid use of partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine), mixed agonist/antagonists (e.g., nalbuphine), or pure antagonists (e.g., naloxone) in patients physically dependent on opioids, as an acute withdrawal syndrome may precipitate. The severity of the withdrawal syndrome produced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and on the administered dose of the opioid antagonist. If treatment of respiratory depression in an individual physically dependent on opioids is necessary, administer the opioid antagonist with extreme care; titrate the antagonist dose by using smaller than usual doses. In addition, the use of partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists in patients who have received or are receiving opioid agonist analgesia may reduce the analgesic effects of hydrocodone.

    CNS depression, head trauma, increased intracranial pressure, intracranial mass, psychosis

    Use hydrocodone with caution in patients with CNS depression, toxic psychosis, head trauma, intracranial mass, or increased intracranial pressure. Monitor for signs of drowsiness and depressed respirations, particularly when initiating hydrocodone. Opioids may aggravate such conditions and alter neurologic parameters (e.g., level of consciousness, pupillary responses). Hydrocodone-induced hypoventilation can produce cerebral hypoxia, carbon dioxide retention, and raise CSF pressure. Avoid the use of hydrocodone in patients with impaired consciousness.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Any patient receiving hydrocodone should be warned about the possibility of sedation and to use caution when driving or operating machinery.

    Opioid-naive patients

    Do not use Vantrela 90 mg extended-release tablets in opioid-naive patients. Single doses of Vantrela extended-release tablets of more than 60 mg or a total daily dose of more than 120 mg are for use in opioid-tolerant patients only. Single doses of Zohydro extended-release capsules of more than 40 mg or a total daily dose of more than 80 mg are for use in opioid-tolerant patients only. Total daily doses of Hysingla extended-release tablets of 80 mg or more should be limited to opioid-tolerant patients. Administration of these higher doses may cause fatal respiratory depression in patients not already tolerant to high-dose opioids. Further, hydrocodone extended-release formulations are only indicated for management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate; do not use these products as an as-needed analgesic.

    Seizure disorder, seizures

    Seizures can be precipitated by opioid agonists in patients with a preexisting seizure disorder. The incidence of these effects during hydrocodone therapy is not known, but appears to be rare at normal doses. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during therapy.

    Adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, myxedema

    Use hydrocodone with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency (i.e., Addison's disease), hypothyroidism, or myxedema. Such patients may be at increased risk of adverse events. Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH); however, the thyroid stimulating hormone may be either stimulated or inhibited by opioids. Rarely, adrenal insufficiency has been reported in association with opioid use. Patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, or hypotension. If adrenocortical insufficiency is suspected, confirm with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If diagnosed, the patient should be treated with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids, and if appropriate, weaned off of opioid therapy. If the opioid can be discontinued, a follow-up assessment of adrenal function should be performed to determine if corticosteroid treatment can be discontinued. Other opioids may be tried; some cases reported use of a different opioid with no recurrence of adrenocortical insufficiency. It is unclear which, if any, opioids are more likely to cause adrenocortical insufficiency. In addition, chronic opioid use may lead to symptoms of hypogonadism, resulting from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy, particularly those receiving a daily dose equivalent to 100 mg or more of morphine. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    AV block, bradycardia, electrolyte imbalance, heart failure, long QT syndrome, QT prolongation, sick sinus syndrome

    QT prolongation has been observed with Hysingla extended-release tablets following daily doses of 160 mg. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study (n = 196), the maximum mean (90% upper confidence bound) difference in the QTc interval between active drug and placebo after baseline correction at steady state was 6 (9) milliseconds, 7 (10) milliseconds, and 10 (13) milliseconds at hydrocodone doses of 80 mg, 120 mg, and 160 mg, respectively. QT prolongation was also evaluated in 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of Vantrela extended-release tablets. More patients randomized to active drug experienced a change from screening in QTcF interval > 60 milliseconds (4/337, 1%) than those randomized to placebo (1/326, < 1%). Avoid using hydrocodone extended-release tablets in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Consider the possibility of QT prolongation and monitoring implications when using the extended-release tablets in patients with congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias (e.g., bradycardia, AV block, sick sinus syndrome), electrolyte imbalance, or those who are taking concurrent medications known to prolong the QT interval. Do not exceed a dose of Vantrela extended-release tablets of 180 mg/day. If QT prolongation develops, consider changing to an alternative analgesic. A reduction in the Hysingla ER dose of 33% to 50% may be considered in patients who develop QT prolongation.

    Angina, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac disease, dehydration, hypotension, hypovolemia, orthostatic hypotension, shock

    Opioid agonists, such as hydrocodone, produce cholinergic side effects (by stimulating medullary vagal nuclei) causing bradycardia and vasovagal syncope, and induce the release of histamine. In patients who are unable to maintain blood pressure due to hypovolemia or dehydration, or in those who concurrently receive other agents that compromise vasomotor tone (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics), opioid agonists may induce peripheral vasodilatation and severe hypotension. These effects can cause problems in patients with cardiac disease (e.g., angina, heart failure). Hydrocodone should be used with caution in patients with cardiac arrhythmias or orthostatic hypotension and should not be used in patients with circulatory shock. Monitor patients for hypotension following hydrocodone initiation and dose titrations.

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    There are no data or data are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage with hydrocodone use in human pregnancy. In animal studies, hydrocodone administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis, gestation, or lactation resulted in decreased body weight of offspring, reduced nursing behavior, increased post-implantation loss, and non-viable litters at doses approximately 2- to 3-fold human hydrocodone doses of 100 to 180 mg/day; decreases in survival were seen in the offspring of rats given hydrocodone during gestation and lactation at doses equivalent to a human dose of 180 mg/day and above. Fetal malformations including increases in umbilical hernias, irregularly shaped bones, and delays in fetal skeletal maturation occurred with doses equivalent to 15 times an adult human dose of 100 mg/day. Hydrocodone is not recommended for use in women during and immediately prior to labor and obstetric delivery because oral opioid agonists may cause respiratory depression in the newborn. Opioid analgesics can prolong labor by reducing the strength and frequency of uterine contractions; however, this effect may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation. Further, prolonged maternal use of long-acting opioids, such as hydrocodone, during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). This syndrome can be life-threatening. Severe symptoms may require pharmacologic therapy managed by clinicians familiar with neonatal opioid withdrawal. Monitor the neonate for withdrawal symptoms including irritability, hyperactivity, abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched crying, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn.

    Breast-feeding

    Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in the breast-fed infant, breast-feeding is not recommended during treatment with extended-release hydrocodone. Hydrocodone is distributed into breast milk at varying degrees depending upon the dose. A pharmacokinetic study in 30 women receiving acetaminophen; hydrocodone for postpartum pain found that breast fed newborns (postnatal age 3 to 11 days) received a median of 1.6% (range 0.2% to 9%) of the maternal weight-adjusted hydrocodone dosage. The total opioid dosage via breast milk, including the active metabolite hydromorphone, was found to be 0.7% of a therapeutic dosage used for older infants. Monitor infants exposed to hydrocodone through breast milk for sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-fed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped. During lactation, pain control with non-opioid analgesics is optimal; maternal oral intake of hydrocodone should be limited to a few days with a maximum dosage of 30 mg/day. Alternative analgesics that may be considered for use during breast-feeding include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, morphine, and butorphanol.

    Infertility, reproductive risk

    Chronic opioid use may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to hormonal changes that may manifest as hypogonadism (gonadal suppression) and pose a reproductive risk. Although the exact causal role of opioids in the clinical manifestations of hypogonadism is unknown, patients could experience libido decrease, impotence, amenorrhea, or infertility. It is not known whether the effects on fertility are reversible. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    GI obstruction / Delayed / 0-1.0
    pancreatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    apnea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    respiratory arrest / Rapid / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    SIADH / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 3.0-15.0
    migraine / Early / 1.0-10.0
    depression / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-10.0
    peripheral edema / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 1.0-10.0
    hypokalemia / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    dehydration / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    hypertension / Early / 1.0-5.0
    confusion / Early / 0-1.0
    dysphagia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    withdrawal / Early / 0-1.0
    respiratory depression / Rapid / 0-1.0
    hypoxia / Early / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-1.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 0-1.0
    edema / Delayed / 0-1.0
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 0-1.0
    erythema / Early / 0-1.0
    urinary retention / Early / 0-1.0
    tolerance / Delayed / Incidence not known
    psychological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    physiological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    infertility / Delayed / Incidence not known
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hyponatremia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    adrenocortical insufficiency / Delayed / Incidence not known
    QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known

    Mild

    nausea / Early / 7.0-17.0
    lethargy / Early / 0-10.0
    tremor / Early / 0-10.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 0-10.0
    paresthesias / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    insomnia / Early / 1.0-10.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 0-10.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 1.0-10.0
    gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    cough / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    back pain / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    arthralgia / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    musculoskeletal pain / Early / 1.0-10.0
    myalgia / Early / 1.0-10.0
    rash / Early / 1.0-10.0
    night sweats / Early / 1.0-10.0
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    flushing / Rapid / 1.0-10.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    infection / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    fever / Early / 1.0-10.0
    tinnitus / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    headache / Early / 0-8.0
    drowsiness / Early / 1.0-8.0
    dizziness / Early / 1.0-7.0
    vomiting / Early / 3.0-7.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-5.0
    xerostomia / Early / 0-5.0
    nasal congestion / Early / 1.0-5.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-5.0
    chills / Rapid / 1.0-5.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    influenza / Delayed / 1.0-5.0
    fatigue / Early / 1.0-4.0
    muscle cramps / Delayed / 1.0-3.0
    irritability / Delayed / 0-1.0
    agitation / Early / 0-1.0
    syncope / Early / 0-1.0
    malaise / Early / 0-1.0
    libido decrease / Delayed / 0-1.0
    gonadal suppression / Delayed / 0-1.0
    amenorrhea / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abiraterone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with abiraterone may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of abiraterone could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If abiraterone is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Abiraterone is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with doxylamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with doxylamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other central nervous system depressants can potentiate the effects of hydrocodone and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. If hydrocodone is used with a CNS depressant, the dose of one or both drugs should be reduced.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with pyrilamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with pyrilamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pentazocine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Pentazocine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of hydrocodone. Pentazocine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of pentazocine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Acetaminophen; Tramadol: (Major) Concomitant use of tramadol increases the seizure risk in patients taking opiate agonists. Also, tramadol can cause additive CNS depression and respiratory depression when used with opiate agonists; avoid concurrent use whenever possible. If used together, extreme caution is needed, and a reduced tramadol dose is recommended.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of opioid agonists with acrivastine due to the risk of additive CNS depression.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Aldesleukin, IL-2 may affect CNS function significantly. Therefore, psychotropic pharmacodynamic interactions could occur following concomitant administration of drugs with significant CNS or psychotropic activity such as opiate agonists. In addition, aldesleukin, IL-2, is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and may increase oxycodone plasma concentrations and related toxicities including potentially fatal respiratory depression. If therapy with both agents is necessary, monitor patients for an extended period and adjust oxycodone dosage as necessary.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Almotriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Alosetron: (Major) Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility may be at greater risk for serious complications from alosetron, like constipation, via a pharmacodynamic interaction. Constipation is the most frequently reported adverse effect with alosetron. Alosetron, if used with drugs such as opiate agonists, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstruction/impaction or paralytic ileus.
    Alprazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as magnesium hydroxide, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as magnesium hydroxide, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Alvimopan: (Moderate) Patients should not take alvimopan if they have received therapeutic doses of opiate agonists for more than seven consecutive days immediately before initiation of alvimopan therapy. Patients recently exposed to opioids are expected to be more sensitive to the effects of mu-opioid receptor antagonists and may experience adverse effects localized to the gastrointestinal tract such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
    Amide local anesthetics: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when amiloride is administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when amiloride is administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amiodarone is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like amiodarone can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If amiodarone is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with celecoxib may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of celecoxib could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If celecoxib is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Celecoxib is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Amobarbital: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Amoxapine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with amoxapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with amoxapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like clarithromycin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If clarithromycin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphetamines: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Apalutamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with apalutamide can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If apalutamide is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Apomorphine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with apomorphine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking apomorphine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with entacapone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents like apomorphine have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Theoretically, apraclonidine might potentiate the effects of CNS depressant drugs such as opiate agonists. Although no specific drug interactions were identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials, apraclonidine can cause dizziness and somnolence.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of oral, multi-day regimens of aprepitant is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like aprepitant can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If aprepitant is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with aripiprazole may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking aripiprazole Limit the use of opioid pain medications with aripiprazole to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Armodafinil: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with armodafinil is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If armodafinil is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and armodafinil is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with artemether; lumefantrine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of artemether; lumefantrine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If artemether; lumefantrine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Artemether; lumefantrine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with asenapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking asenapine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with asenapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with orphenadrine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with orphenadrine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking orphenadrine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking carisoprodol.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking carisoprodol.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of atazanavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like atazanavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If atazanavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of atazanavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like atazanavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If atazanavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cobicistat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cobicistat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Atropine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Azelastine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with azelastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking azelastine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with azelastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with azelastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking azelastine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with azelastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Baclofen: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with baclofen may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with baclofen to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking baclofen.
    Barbiturates: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Belumosudil: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of belumosudil is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A inhibitors like belumosudil can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If belumosudil is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Belzutifan: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with belzutifan is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If belzutifan is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A substrate and belzutifan is a weak CYP3A inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A inducers can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) Benzhydrodocone is a prodrug for hydrocodone. Use caution to avoid duplicate therapy. Concomitant use of opioid agonists with benzhydrocodone may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of benzhydrocodone with opioid agonists to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If benzhydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking morphine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response. If morphine is prescribed in a patient taking benzhydrocodone, use a lower initial dose of morphine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking other opioid agonists. Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of benzhydrocodone and morphine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue benzhydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benzonatate: (Moderate) The vagal effects and respiratory depression induced by hydrocodone may be increased by the use of benzonatate.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Benztropine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Berotralstat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of berotralstat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like berotralstat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If berotralstat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Bethanechol: (Moderate) Bethanechol facilitates intestinal and bladder function via parasympathomimetic actions. Opiate agonists impair the peristaltic activity of the intestine. Thus, these drugs can antagonize the beneficial actions of bethanechol on GI motility.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with bexarotene can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If bexarotene is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and bexarotene is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Bicalutamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of bicalutamide is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like bicalutamide can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If bicalutamide is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Bisacodyl: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as bisacodyl, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Boceprevir: (Major) Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation if hydrocodone and boceprevir are coadministered; consider dosage adjustments if necessary. Hydrocodone is metabolized by CYP3A4. Concomitant administration of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, such as boceprevir, may cause an increase in hydrocodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse effects.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with bosentan can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If bosentan is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and bosentan is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Brexpiprazole: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brexpiprazole may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking brexpiprazole. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with brexpiprazole to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with brigatinib can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If brigatinib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. At clinically relevant concentrations, brigatinib induced CYP3A via activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR); this may decrease concentrations of sensitive CYP3A substrates.
    Brimonidine: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brimonidine; Brinzolamide: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Based on the sedative effects of brimonidine in individual patients, brimonidine administration has potential to enhance the CNS depressants effects of opiate agonists.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with brompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with brompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when loop diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Bupivacaine Liposomal: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine; Lidocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Bupivacaine; Meloxicam: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Buprenorphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist with strong affinity for the mu-receptor that may partially block the effects of full mu-receptor opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. In these cases, health care professionals must exercise caution in opiate agonist dose selection, as higher doses of an opiate agonist may be required to compete with buprenorphine at the mu-receptor. Management strategies may include adding a short-acting opiate agonist to achieve analgesia in the presence of buprenorphine, discontinuation of buprenorphine and use of an opiate agonist to avoid withdrawal and achieve analgesia, or conversion of buprenorphine to methadone while using additional opiate agonists if needed. Closely monitor patients for CNS or respiratory depression. When buprenorphine is used for analgesia, avoid co-use with opiate agonists. Buprenorphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists as well as possibly potentiate CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Buprenorphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist with strong affinity for the mu-receptor that may partially block the effects of full mu-receptor opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. In some cases of acute pain, trauma, or during surgical management, opiate-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy may require concurrent treatment with opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. In these cases, health care professionals must exercise caution in opiate agonist dose selection, as higher doses of an opiate agonist may be required to compete with buprenorphine at the mu-receptor. Management strategies may include adding a short-acting opiate agonist to achieve analgesia in the presence of buprenorphine, discontinuation of buprenorphine and use of an opiate agonist to avoid withdrawal and achieve analgesia, or conversion of buprenorphine to methadone while using additional opiate agonists if needed. Closely monitor patients for CNS or respiratory depression. When buprenorphine is used for analgesia, avoid co-use with opiate agonists. Buprenorphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists as well as possibly potentiate CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Bupropion: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with bupropion may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of bupropion could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If bupropion is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Bupropion is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) The opiate antagonists naloxone and naltrexone are pharmacologic opposites of hydrocodone. These drugs can block the actions of hydrocodone and, if administered to patients who have received chronic hydrocodone, can produce acute withdrawal and/or reduce the analgesic effect of hydrocodone. (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with bupropion may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of bupropion could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If bupropion is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Bupropion is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other central nervous system depressants, such as buspirone, can potentiate the effects of hydrocodone and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. If hydrocodone is used with buspirone, the dose of one or both drugs should be reduced.
    Butabarbital: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate. (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Butorphanol: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of butorphanol and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Butorphanol is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of hydrocodone. Butorphanol may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of butorphanol with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium Oxybates: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with sodium oxybate may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with sodium oxybate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cannabidiol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking cannabidiol. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with cannabidiol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with metaxalone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with metaxalone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking metaxalone. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with carbamazepine can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If carbamazepine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and carbamazepine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with pyrilamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with pyrilamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with pyrilamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with pyrilamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including morphine.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carbinoxamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with carbinoxamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carbinoxamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with carbinoxamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carbinoxamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with carbinoxamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carbinoxamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with carbinoxamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carbinoxamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with carbinoxamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carbinoxamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with carbinoxamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists like hydrocodone with cariprazine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with cariprazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking cariprazine.
    Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking carisoprodol.
    Castor Oil: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as castor oil, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with celecoxib may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of celecoxib could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If celecoxib is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Celecoxib is an inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with cenobamate may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of hydrocodone with cenobamate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Avoid prescribing hydrocodone cough medication in patients taking cenobamate. Additionally, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal in patients who have developed physical dependence if coadministration with cenobamate is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If cenobamate is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and cenobamate is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use can decrease hydrocodone concentrations.
    Ceritinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ceritinib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ceritinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ceritinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cetirizine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with cetirizine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cetirizine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with cetirizine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexbrompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexbrompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexchlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexchlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chloral Hydrate: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chloral hydrate may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking chloral hydrate. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with chloral hydrate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of chloramphenicol is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like chloramphenicol can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If chloramphenicol is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorcyclizine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorcyclizine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlordiazepoxide: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Chloroprocaine: (Minor) Due to the CNS depression potential of all local anesthetics, they should be used with caution with other agents that can cause respiratory depression, such as opiate agonists.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with chlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorpromazine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking chlorpromazine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with chlorpromazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with clonidine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with clonidine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Chlorzoxazone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with chlorzoxazone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with chlorzoxazone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking chlorzoxazone.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cimetidine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cimetidine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cimetidine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Cinacalcet: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with cinacalcet may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of cinacalcet could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If cinacalcet is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Cinacalcet is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ciprofloxacin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ciprofloxacin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ciprofloxacin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Citalopram: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome can occur during concomitant use of opiate agonists like hydrocodone with serotonergic drugs, such as citalopram. Symptoms may occur hours to days after concomitant use, particularly after dose increases. Serotonin syndrome may occur within recommended dose ranges. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Clarithromycin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like clarithromycin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If clarithromycin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with clemastine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with clemastine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Clobazam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, the metabolism of hydrocodone to its active metabolite, hydromorphone, is dependent on CYP2D6. Theoretically, co-administration of hydrocodone and a CYP2D6 inhibitor, such as clobazam, may result in a reduction in the analgesic effect of hydrocodone. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Clonazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Clonidine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with clonidine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with clonidine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Clopidogrel: (Moderate) Coadministration of opioid agonists, such as hydrocodone, delay and reduce the absorption of clopidogrel resulting in reduced exposure to active metabolites and diminished inhibition of platelet aggregation. Consider the use of a parenteral antiplatelet agent in acute coronary syndrome patients requiring an opioid agonist. Coadministration of intravenous morphine decreased the Cmax and AUC of clopidogrel's active metabolites by 34%. Time required for maximal inhibition of platelet aggregation (median 3 hours vs. 1.25 hours) was significantly delayed; times up to 5 hours were reported. Inhibition of platelet plug formation was delayed and residual platelet aggregation was significantly greater 1 to 4 hours after morphine administration.
    Clorazepate: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants, such as clozapine, may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. In addition, combining clozapine with opiate agonists may lead to additive effects on intestinal motility or bladder function.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cobicistat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cobicistat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Codeine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with promethazine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking promethazine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with promethazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce the opioid dose by one-quarter to one-half; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with promethazine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking promethazine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with promethazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce the opioid dose by one-quarter to one-half; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    COMT inhibitors: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with COMT inhibitors may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking COMT inhibitors. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with COMT inhibitors to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. COMT inhibitors have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of conivaptan is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A inhibitors like conivaptan can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If conivaptan is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Crizotinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of crizotinib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like crizotinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If crizotinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Crofelemer: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and opiate agonists are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as opiate agonists, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Cyclizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cyclizine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with cyclizine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cyclobenzaprine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with cyclobenzaprine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking cyclobenzaprine. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cyclosporine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like cyclosporine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If cyclosporine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cyproheptadine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with cyproheptadine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dabrafenib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with dabrafenib can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If dabrafenib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and dabrafenib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Dacomitinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with dacomitinib may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of dacomitinib could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If dacomitinib is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Dacomitinib is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Dalfopristin; Quinupristin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of dalfopristin; quinupristin is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like dalfopristin; quinupristin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If dalfopristin; quinupristin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of danazol is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like danazol can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If danazol is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Dantrolene: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dantrolene may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid agonists with dantrolene to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking dantrolene.
    Darifenacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with darifenacin may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including a risk for hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Avoid use of hydrocodone when it is being used for cough; consider alternative agents for cough treatment. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of darifenacin could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If darifenacin is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Darifenacin is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. In addition, the concomitant use of these drugs together may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Darifenacin has anticholinergic actions that may produce additive effects. Both agents may also cause drowsiness or blurred vision, and patients should use care in driving or performing other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of darunavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like darunavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If darunavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cobicistat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cobicistat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of darunavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like darunavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If darunavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cobicistat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cobicistat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of darunavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like darunavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If darunavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ritonavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ritonavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ritonavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Deferasirox: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with deferasirox is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If deferasirox is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and deferasirox is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of delavirdine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like delavirdine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If delavirdine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Desflurane: (Moderate) Concurrent use with opiate agonists can decrease the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane needed to produce anesthesia.
    Desmopressin: (Major) Additive hyponatremic effects may be seen in patients treated with desmopressin and drugs associated with water intoxication, hyponatremia, or SIADH including opiate agonists. Use combination with caution, and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia.
    Desvenlafaxine: (Major) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and desvenlafaxine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with desvenlafaxine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of desvenlafaxine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If desvenlafaxine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Desvenlafaxine is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with deutetrabenazine may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with deutetrabenazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If acetaminophen; hydrocodone or hydrocodone; ibuprofen are initiated in a patient taking deutetrabenazine, reduced initial doses are recommended. If a decision is made to start treatment with hydrocodone extended-release tabIets or capsules, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If deutetrabenazine is prescribed for a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of deutetrabenazine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid prescribing opiate cough medications in patients taking deutetrabenazine.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with dexamethasone can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If dexamethasone is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and dexamethasone is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexbrompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexbrompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexbrompheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexbrompheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexchlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexchlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexchlorpheniramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexchlorpheniramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dexmedetomidine may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dexmedetomidine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dexpanthenol: (Moderate) Use caution when using dexpanthenol with drugs that decrease gastrointestinal motility, such as opiate agonists, as it may decrease the effectiveness of dexpanthenol.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with quinidine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of quinidine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If quinidine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Quinidine is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Diazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. If parental diazepam is used with an opiate agonist, reduce the opiate agonist dosage by at least 1/3. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Dicyclomine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Diltiazem: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of diltiazem is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like diltiazem can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If diltiazem is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dimenhydrinate may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dimenhydrinate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with diphenhydramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with diphenhydramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with other opiate agonists can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. In addition, diphenoxylate/difenoxin use may cause constipation; cases of severe GI reactions including toxic megacolon and adynamic ileus have been reported. Reduced GI motility when combined with opiate agonists may increase the risk of serious GI related adverse events. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Dolasetron: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with doxylamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with doxylamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with doxylamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with doxylamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with dronabinol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with dronabinol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of dronedarone is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like dronedarone can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If dronedarone is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Droperidol: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with droperidol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking droperidol. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with droperidol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and duloxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with duloxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of duloxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If duloxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Duvelisib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of duvelisib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like duvelisib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If duvelisib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with efavirenz can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If efavirenz is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and efavirenz is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with efavirenz can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If efavirenz is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and efavirenz is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with efavirenz can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If efavirenz is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and efavirenz is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Elagolix: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with elagolix can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If elagolix is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and elagolix is a weak to moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with elagolix can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If elagolix is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and elagolix is a weak to moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of grazoprevir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like grazoprevir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If grazoprevir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Eletriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ivacaftor is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ivacaftor can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ivacaftor is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Eliglustat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with eliglustat may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of eliglustat could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If eliglustat is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Eliglustat is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Eluxadoline: (Major) Avoid use of eluxadoline with medications that may cause constipation, such as hydrocodone. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle within the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Closely monitor for increased side effects if these drugs are administered together.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cobicistat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cobicistat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of cobicistat is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like cobicistat can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If cobicistat is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Enflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Enzalutamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with enzalutamide can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If enzalutamide is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Erythromycin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of erythromycin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like erythromycin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If erythromycin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of erythromycin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like erythromycin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If erythromycin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and escitalopram because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with escitalopram may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of escitalopram could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If escitalopram is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Escitalopram is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Esketamine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with esketamine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with esketamine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Patients who have received a dose of esketamine should be instructed not to drive or engage in other activities requiring complete mental alertness until the next day after a restful sleep. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with eslicarbazepine can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If eslicarbazepine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and eslicarbazepine is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Estazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Eszopiclone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with eszopiclone may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and complex sleep-related behaviors (e.g., driving, talking, eating, or performing other activities while not fully awake). Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking eszopiclone. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with eszopiclone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Instruct patients to contact their provider immediately if sleep-related symptoms or behaviors occur. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when loop diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Ethanol: (Major) Alcohol is associated with CNS depression. The combined use of alcohol and CNS depressants can lead to additive CNS depression, which could be dangerous in tasks requiring mental alertness and fatal in overdose. Alcohol taken with other CNS depressants can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs when prescribing CNS depressant medications. In many cases, the patient should receive a lower dose of the CNS depressant initially if the patient is not likely to be compliant with avoiding alcohol.
    Etomidate: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Etravirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with etravirine can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If etravirine is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and etravirine is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Everolimus: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of everolimus is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like everolimus can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If everolimus is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Fedratinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fedratinib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like fedratinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If fedratinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with fenfluramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid agonists with fenfluramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking fenfluramine. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Fesoterodine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when fesoterodine, an anticholinergic drug for overactive bladder is used with opiate agonists. The concomitant use of these drugs together may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Both agents may also cause drowsiness or blurred vision, and patients should use care in driving or performing other hazardous tasks until the effects of the drugs are known.
    Flavoxate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Flibanserin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with flibanserin may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with flibanserin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fluconazole is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like fluconazole can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If fluconazole is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Careful monitoring, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment, is recommended during coadministration of hydrocodone and fluoxetine because of the potential risk of serotonin syndrome and prolonged opioid adverse reactions. Discontinue hydrocodone if serotonin syndrome is suspected. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Concomitant use of hydrocodone with fluoxetine may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of fluoxetine could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If fluoxetine is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Fluoxetine is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with fluphenazine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking fluphenazine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with fluphenazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Flurazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Flutamide: (Moderate) Hydrocodone is metabolized by CYP3A4. Flutamide, an inducer of CYP3A4, may cause increased clearance of hydrocodone, which could result in lack of efficacy or the development of an abstinence syndrome in a patient who had developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. Monitor the patient for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone. A higher hydrocodone dose may be needed if used with flutamide.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fluvoxamine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like fluvoxamine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If fluvoxamine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with fosamprenavir may produce unpredictable effects, including prolonged opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression, or a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to opioid agonists. Consider dose adjustments of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP3A4. Amprenavir, the active metabolite of fosamprenavir, is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 and an inducer of CYP3A4.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with fosphenytoin can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If fosphenytoin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and phenytoin (the active metabolite of fosphenytoin) is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Fospropofol: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of fostamatinib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like fostamatinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If fostamatinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Frovatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-recptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when loop diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Gabapentin: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with gabapentin may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and respiratory depression. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking gabapentin. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with gabapentin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, initiate gabapentin at the lowest recommended dose and monitor patients for symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Also, coadministration of gabapentin with hydrocodone decreases hydrocodone exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Consider the potential for decreased hydrocodone exposure and effect when gabapentin is started or discontinued in a patient taking hydrocodone. Hydrocodone (10 mg; n = 50) Cmax and AUC values were 3% to 4% lower, respectively, after administration of gabapentin (n = 48) 125 mg and 21% to 22% lower, respectively, after administration of gabapentin 500 mg. Hydrocodone increases gabapentin AUC values by 14%. The magnitude of interaction at other doses and the mechanism of the interaction are unknown.
    General anesthetics: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Granisetron: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering hydrocodone with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Grapefruit juice: (Moderate) Patients should not significantly alter their intake of grapefruit or grapefruit juice during therapy with hydrocodone. Grapefruit juice, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase plasma concentrations of hydrocodone, a CYP3A4 substrate. This may increase or prolong hydrocodone-related toxicities including respiratory depression. Advise patients accordingly; patient monitoring and dosage adjustments may be necessary if grapefruit is consumed regularly.
    Guanabenz: (Moderate) Guanabenz is associated with sedative effects. Guanabenz can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants such as opiate agonists, when administered concomitantly.
    Guanfacine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with guanfacine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with guanfacine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with haloperidol may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of haloperidol could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If haloperidol is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Haloperidol is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6.
    Halothane: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with methyldopa may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with methyldopa to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Hydromorphone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydromorphone with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as other opiate agonists like hydrocodone, can potentiate the effects of hydromorphone and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression, profound sedation, or coma. Prior to concurrent use of hydromorphone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. If hydromorphone is used concurrently with a CNS depressant, a reduced dosage of hydromorphone and/or the CNS depressant is recommended; start with one-third to one-half of the estimated hydromorphone starting dose when using hydromorphone extended-release tablets. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension, CNS depression, and respiratory depression. Carbon dioxide retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.
    Hydroxyzine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with hydroxyzine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with hydroxyzine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Use an initial dose of oxycodone at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Idelalisib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of idelalisib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like idelalisib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If idelalisib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of iloperidone with other centrally-acting medications such as opiate agonists, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects including drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of imatinib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like imatinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If imatinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when indapamide is administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of indinavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors like indinavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced with a combined CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor. If indinavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of isavuconazonium is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isavuconazonium can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If isavuconazonium is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Isocarboxazid: (Major) The use of hydrocodone is not recommended in patients who have received a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the past 14 days or are currently taking an MAOI due to a risk for serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small opioid doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome and CNS and respiratory depression.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Isoniazid, INH: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of isoniazid is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isoniazid can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If isoniazid is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with rifampin can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If rifampin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of isoniazid is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isoniazid can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If isoniazid is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with rifampin can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If rifampin is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of isoniazid is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like isoniazid can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If isoniazid is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Istradefylline: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of istradefylline 40 mg daily is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate; istradefylline administered as 40 mg daily is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If istradefylline is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone. There was no effect on drug exposure when istradefylline 20 mg daily was coadministered with a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of itraconazole is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like itraconazole can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If itraconazole is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ivacaftor is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ivacaftor can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ivacaftor is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Ketamine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with a general anesthetic may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients receiving a general anesthetic. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with a general anesthetic to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ketoconazole is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ketoconazole can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ketoconazole is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Lactulose: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as lactulose, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of clarithromycin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like clarithromycin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If clarithromycin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of lapatinib is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like lapatinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If lapatinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Larotrectinib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of larotrectinib is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like larotrectinib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If larotrectinib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with lasmiditan may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and serotonin syndrome. Limit the use of hydrocodone with lasmiditan to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression and serotonin syndrome. Avoid prescribing hydrocodone cough medications in patients taking lasmiditan.
    Lefamulin: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of oral lefamulin is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. An interaction is not expected with intravenous lefamulin. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like oral lefamulin can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If oral lefamulin is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Lemborexant: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with lemborexant may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of hydrocodone with lemborexant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Avoid prescribing hydrocodone cough medicine in patients taking lemborexant.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with lesinurad is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If lesinurad is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal if coadministration with lesinurad is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If lesinurad is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use with CYP3A4 inducers can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence.
    Letermovir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of letermovir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like letermovir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If letermovir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Levamlodipine: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of amlodipine is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like amlodipine can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If amlodipine is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Levobupivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with cetirizine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with cetirizine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and levomilnacipran is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Levorphanol: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Lidocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Lidocaine; Prilocaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Linezolid: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving linezolid or within 14 days of stopping treatment with linezolid due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Lithium: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and lithium is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive hypotension and sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and hydrocodone. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants.
    Lonafarnib: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of lonafarnib is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like lonafarnib can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If lonafarnib is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when loop diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of selected antidiarrheals (e.g., loperamide, diphenoxylate) and opiate agonists can lead to additive CNS depression.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Additive constipation may be seen with concurrent use of opiate agonists and antidiarrheals. Opioids increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Concurrent use of selected antidiarrheals (e.g., loperamide, diphenoxylate) and opiate agonists can lead to additive CNS depression.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ritonavir is necessary. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ritonavir can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ritonavir is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Lorazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If hydrocodone is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; for hydrocodone extended-release products, initiate hydrocodone at 20% to 30% of the usual dosage. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking an opiate agonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Avoid opiate cough medications in patients taking benzodiazepines.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with lorcaserin may increase hydrocodone plasma concentrations and prolong opioid adverse reactions, including hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely at frequent intervals and consider a dosage reduction of hydrocodone until stable drug effects are achieved. Discontinuation of lorcaserin could decrease hydrocodone plasma concentrations, decrease opioid efficacy, and potentially lead to a withdrawal syndrome in those with physical dependence to hydrocodone. If lorcaserin is discontinued, monitor the patient carefully and consider increasing the opioid dosage if appropriate. Hydrocodone is a substrate for CYP2D6. Lorcaserin is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Also, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Lorlatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal in patients who have developed physical dependence if coadministration with lorlatinib is necessary; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If lorlatinib is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use can decrease hydrocodone levels.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists like hydrocodone with loxapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with loxapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking loxapine.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with lumacaftor; ivacaftor can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If lumacaftor; ivacaftor is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lumacaftor; ivacaftor is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. (Moderate) Consider a reduced dose of hydrocodone with frequent monitoring for respiratory depression and sedation if concurrent use of ivacaftor is necessary. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate, and coadministration with CYP3A4 inhibitors like ivacaftor can increase hydrocodone exposure resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects including fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added to a stable dose of hydrocodone. These effects could be more pronounced in patients also receiving a CYP2D6 inhibitor. If ivacaftor is discontinued, hydrocodone plasma concentrations will decrease resulting in reduced efficacy of the opioid and potential withdrawal syndrome in a patient who has developed physical dependence to hydrocodone.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with lumacaftor; ivacaftor can decrease hydrocodone levels; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal; consider increasing the dose of hydrocodone as needed. If lumacaftor; ivacaftor is discontinued, consider a dose reduction of hydrocodone and frequently monitor for signs or respiratory depression and sedation. Hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate and lumacaftor; ivacaftor is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists like hydrocodone with lumateperone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with lumateperone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking lumateperone.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists like hydrocodone with lurasidone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with lurasidone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking lurasidone.
    Magnesium Citrate: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as magnesium citrate, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as magnesium hydroxide, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Magnesium Salts: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as opiate agonists. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Sulfate; Sodium Sulfate: (Minor) Concurrent use of hydrocodone with strong laxatives that rapidly increase gastrointestinal motility, such as magnesium sulfate; potassium sulfate; sodium sulfate, may decrease hydrocodone absorption. Closely monitor patients for changing analgesic requirements or adverse events.
    Maprotiline: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with maprotiline may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking maprotiline. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with maprotiline to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Melatonin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with melatonin may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking melatonin. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with melatonin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Mepenzolate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Meperidine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with promethazine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medications in patients taking promethazine. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with promethazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce the opioid dose by one-quarter to one-half; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Mephobarbital: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Mepivacaine: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Moderate) The use of these drugs together must be approached with caution. Although commonly used together for additive analgesic effects, the patient must be monitored for respiratory depression, hypotension, and excessive sedation due to additive effects on the CNS and blood pressure. In rare instances, serious morbidity and mortality has occurred. Limit the use of opiate pain medications with local anesthetics to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. The use of the local anesthetic will allow for the use a lower initial dose of the opiate and then the doses can be titrated to proper clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with meprobamate may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression. Drugs that may cause additive CNS effects include anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Metaxalone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with metaxalone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with metaxalone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking metaxalone. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Methadone: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with other CNS depressants may lead to hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression and death. Prior to concurrent use of hydrocodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Hydrocodone should be used in reduced dosages if used concurrently with a CNS depressant; initiate hydrocodone at 20 to 30% of the usual dosage in patients that are concurrently receiving another CNS depressant. Also consider a using a lower dose of the CNS depressant. Monitor patients for sedation and respiratory depression.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of hydrocodone and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Methocarbamol: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with methocarbamol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with methocarbamol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Avoid prescribing opioid cough medication in patients taking methocarbamol.
    Methohexital: (Major) Concomitant use of hydrocodone with barbiturates may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with barbiturates to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. It is recommended to avoid this combination when hydrocodone is being used for cough. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Additionally, concomitant use of hydrocodone with a barbiturate can decrease hydrocodone concentrations; this may result in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence. Monitor for reduced efficacy of hydrocodone and signs of opioid withdrawal. Discontinuation of a barbiturate may increase the risk of opioid-related adverse reactions, such as fatal respiratory depression. Barbiturates induce CYP3A4; hydrocodone is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased diuretic efficacy and additive orthostatic hypotension when thiazide diuretics are administered with hydrocodone. Adjustments to diuretic therapy may be needed in some patients. The efficacy of diuretics may be reduced due to opioid-induced release of antidiuretic hormone.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with methyldopa may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medication with methyldopa to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect.
    Methylene Blue: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene b