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    Mixed Opiate Agonist-Antagonist

    BOXED WARNING

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, sleep apnea

    Nalbuphine is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression and those with acute or severe asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible, as this significantly increases the risk for profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; if concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective dosages and minimum treatment durations needed. Monitor patients closely for signs or symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. [61143] Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, respiratory insufficiency, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, or preexisting respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive even at recommended doses. Patients with advanced age, cachexia, or debilitation are also at an increased risk for opioid-induced respiratory depression. Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating the opioid; consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients. Opioids increase the risk of central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia in a dose-dependent fashion. Consider decreasing the opioid dosage in patients with CSA. Respiratory depression, if left untreated, may cause respiratory arrest and death. Carbon dioxide retention from respiratory depression may also worsen opioid sedating effects.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Parenteral opioid agonist/antagonist
    Used for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate, including preoperative, postoperative, and obstetrical analgesia, and as a supplement to balanced anesthesia
    May partially reverse or block opioid-induced respiratory depression from mu opioid agonist analgesics and may precipitate withdrawal in patients dependent on opioids

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Nubain

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride/Nubain Intramuscular Inj Sol: 1mL, 10mg, 20mg
    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride/Nubain Intramuscular Sol: 1mL, 10mg
    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride/Nubain Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 10mg, 20mg
    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride/Nubain Intravenous Sol: 1mL, 10mg
    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride/Nubain Subcutaneous Inj Sol: 1mL, 10mg, 20mg
    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride/Nubain Subcutaneous Sol: 1mL, 10mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of severe pain requiring an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate, including preoperative, postoperative, and obstetrical analgesia.
    Intramuscular, Intravenous, or Subcutaneous dosage
    Adults

    10 mg IM, IV, or subcutaneously every 3 to 6 hours as needed. Dosage is based on 70 kg body weight. Adjust dose based on pain severity, patient physical status, and other medications which the patient may be receiving.

    For adjunctive use in general anesthesia induction and general anesthesia maintenance.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    0.3 to 3 mg/kg IV over 10 to 15 minutes, followed by 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg IV as needed.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    20 mg/dose IV, IM, or subcutaneously and 160 mg/day IV, IM, or subcutaneously for opioid-naive patients.

    Geriatric

    20 mg/dose IV, IM, or subcutaneously and 160 mg/day IV, IM, or subcutaneously for opioid-naive patients.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Use nalbuphine with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction and administer in reduced dosages.

    Renal Impairment

    Use nalbuphine with caution in patients with renal dysfunction and administer in reduced dosages.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Injectable Administration

    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
    No dilution necessary.

    Intravenous Administration

    Ensure naloxone, resuscitative and intubation equipment, and oxygen are readily available before administering intravenous nalbuphine as a supplement to general anesthesia.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Nubain:
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Protect from light
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    - Store in carton until contents are used

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Nalbuphine is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to nalbuphine or to any of the other product ingredients.

    Requires an experienced clinician

    Nalbuphine administration as a supplement to general anesthesia requires an experienced clinician who is specifically trained in the use of intravenous anesthetics and management of respiratory effects of opioids. Naloxone, resuscitative and intubation equipment, and oxygen should be readily available.

    Alcoholism, depression, potential for overdose or poisoning, substance abuse

    As an opioid, nalbuphine exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse. Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed nalbuphine. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused. Assess each patient's risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse before prescribing nalbuphine, and monitor all patients receiving nalbuphine for the development of these behaviors or conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including alcoholism) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as nalbuphine, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of nalbuphine along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse. Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance; patients with addiction may not exhibit tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Abuse of nalbuphine has the potential for overdose or poisoning and death. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing nalbuphine. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity.

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coadministration with other CNS depressants, cor pulmonale, hypoxemia, respiratory depression, respiratory insufficiency, sleep apnea

    Nalbuphine is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression and those with acute or severe asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Avoid coadministration with other CNS depressants when possible, as this significantly increases the risk for profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; if concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective dosages and minimum treatment durations needed. Monitor patients closely for signs or symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. [61143] Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cor pulmonale, respiratory insufficiency, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, or preexisting respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive even at recommended doses. Patients with advanced age, cachexia, or debilitation are also at an increased risk for opioid-induced respiratory depression. Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating the opioid; consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients. Opioids increase the risk of central sleep apnea (CSA) and sleep-related hypoxemia in a dose-dependent fashion. Consider decreasing the opioid dosage in patients with CSA. Respiratory depression, if left untreated, may cause respiratory arrest and death. Carbon dioxide retention from respiratory depression may also worsen opioid sedating effects.

    Biliary tract disease, GI obstruction, ileus, pancreatitis

    Nalbuphine is contraindicated in patients with known or suspected GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. Nalbuphine may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Avoid abrupt discontinuation of nalbuphine in a physically-dependent patient. When a patient who has been taking opioids regularly and may be physically dependent no longer requires therapy with nalbuphine, taper the dose gradually while monitoring carefully for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both.[65809] Consider tapering to reduced opioid dosage, or tapering and discontinuing long-term opioid therapy, when pain improves; the patient requests dosage reduction or discontinuation; pain and function are not meaningfully improved; the patient is receiving higher opioid doses without evidence of benefit from the higher dose; the patient has current evidence of opioid misuse; the patient experiences side effects that diminish quality of life or impair function; the patient experiences an overdose or other serious event (e.g., hospitalization, injury) or has warning signs for an impending event such as confusion, sedation, or slurred speech; the patient is receiving medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) or has medical conditions (e.g., lung disease, sleep apnea, liver disease, kidney disease, fall risk, advanced age) that increase risk for adverse outcomes; or the patient has been treated with opioids for a prolonged period and current benefit-harm balance is unclear. If the patient has a serious mental illness, is at high suicide risk, or has suicidal ideation, offer or arrange for consultation with a behavioral health provider before initiating a taper. In patients with opioid use disorder, offer or arrange for medication-assisted treatment. Individualize opioid tapering schedules. The longer the duration of previous opioid therapy, the longer the taper may take. Common tapers involve dose reduction of 5% to 20% every 4 weeks; a faster taper may be appropriate for some patients. Significant opioid withdrawal symptoms may indicate the need to pause or slow the taper. Opioids may be stopped, if appropriate, when taken less often than once daily. Advise patients that there is an increased risk for overdose on abrupt return to a previously prescribed higher dose; provide opioid overdose education, and consider offering naloxone. Monitor patients closely for anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and opioid use disorder, and offer support and referral as needed.[64906]

    Brain tumor, CNS depression, coma, head trauma, increased intracranial pressure, intracranial mass

    Avoid nalbuphine use in patients with CNS depression, impaired consciousness, or coma; opioids may obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head trauma injury. Monitor patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effect of carbon dioxide retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure, brain tumor, or intracranial mass) for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating nalbuphine therapy. Nalbuphine may reduce respiratory drive and resultant carbon dioxide retention can further increase intracranial pressure.

    Driving or operating machinery

    Monitor patients under observation until recovered from nalbuphine effects that would affect driving or other potentially dangerous tasks. Warn patients against performing potentially hazardous activities such as driving or operating machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of nalbuphine and know how they will react to the medication. Nalbuphine may impair mental or physical abilities required to perform such tasks.

    Hypovolemia, shock

    Nalbuphine may cause severe hypotension, including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is an increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by hypovolemia or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines, general anesthetics). Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the opioid dosage. Avoid the use of nalbuphine in patients with circulatory shock; it may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure.

    Seizure disorder, seizures

    Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorder for worsened seizure control during nalbuphine therapy. Nalbuphine may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with preexisting seizure disorders and may also increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures.

    Hepatic disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Because nalbuphine is metabolized in the liver and excreted by the kidneys, use nalbuphine with caution in patients with hepatic disease or renal impairment or renal failure and administer in reduced dosages.

    Geriatric

    Use nalbuphine with caution in geriatric patients, starting at the low end of the dosing range and titrating slowly. Monitor for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression. Geriatric patients may have increased sensitivity to nalbuphine, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and concomitant disease or other drug therapy.[65809] According to the Beers Criteria, opioids are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in geriatric patients with a history of falls or fractures and should be avoided in these patient populations, except in the setting of severe acute pain, since opioids can produce ataxia, impaired psychomotor function, syncope, and additional falls. If an opioid must be used, consider reducing the use of other medications that increase the risk of falls and fractures and implement strategies to reduce fall risk.[63923] The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Monitor for adverse CNS and gastrointestinal effects, physical and psychological dependency, and unintended respiratory depression, especially in individuals with compromised pulmonary function. Some adverse effects can lead to other consequences such as falls.[60742]

    Labor, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

    The placental transfer of nalbuphine is high, rapid, and variable with a maternal to fetal ratio ranging from 1:0.37 to 1:6. Avoid nalbuphine use during pregnancy unless the potential benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus, and if appropriate measures such as fetal monitoring are taken to detect and manage any potential adverse effect on the fetus. Use nalbuphine during labor or obstetric delivery only if clearly indicated and only if the potential benefit outweighs the risk to the infant. Nalbuphine is not recommended for use during and immediately before labor when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Monitor neonates for respiratory depression, apnea, bradycardia, and arrhythmias if nalbuphine has been used. Fetal and neonatal adverse effects that have been reported after the administration of nalbuphine to the mother during labor include fetal bradycardia, respiratory depression at birth, apnea, cyanosis, and hypotonia. Some of these events have been life-threatening. Maternal administration of naloxone during labor has normalized these effects in some cases. Severe and prolonged fetal bradycardia has been reported. Permanent neurological damage attributed to fetal bradycardia has occurred. A sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern associated with the use of nalbuphine has also been reported. Although there are no reports of fetal bradycardia earlier in pregnancy, it is possible that this may occur. Opioids can prolong labor and obstetric delivery by temporarily reducing the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. This effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilatation, which may shorten labor. Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in the neonate. Further, prolonged maternal use of opioids during pregnancy may result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Monitor the exposed neonate for withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high-pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight, and manage accordingly. Onset, duration, and severity of opioid withdrawal may vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination by the newborn. [55881] Guidelines recommend early universal screening of pregnant patients for opioid use and opioid use disorder at the first prenatal visit. Obtain a thorough history of substance use and review the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program to determine if patients have received prior prescriptions for opioids or other high-risk drugs such as benzodiazepines. Discuss the risks and benefits of opioid use during pregnancy, including the risk of becoming physiologically dependent on opioids, the possibility for NOWS, and how long-term opioid use may affect care during a future pregnancy.[64838] [64909] In women undergoing uncomplicated normal spontaneous vaginal birth, consider opioid therapy only if expected benefits for both pain and function are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. If opioids are used, use in combination with nonpharmacologic therapy and nonopioid pharmacologic therapy, as appropriate. Use immediate-release opioids instead of extended-release or long-acting opioids; order the lowest effective dosage and prescribe no greater quantity of opioids than needed for the expected duration of such pain severe enough to require opioids.[64909] For women using opioids for chronic pain, consider strategies to avoid or minimize the use of opioids, including alternative pain therapies (i.e., nonpharmacologic) and nonopioid pharmacologic treatments. Opioid agonist pharmacotherapy (e.g., methadone or buprenorphine) is preferable to medically supervised withdrawal in pregnant women with opioid use disorder.[64838] In animal reproduction studies, nalbuphine decreased pup survival and birth weights when pregnant female rats were treated late in gestation and through lactation with doses at 1.7 times the maximum recommended human dose and when female and male rats were treated either before mating and through gestation and lactation.

    Breast-feeding

    Limited data suggest that nalbuphine is excreted in breast milk but only in a small amount (less than 1% of administered dose) and with a clinically insignificant effect. Monitor infants exposed to nalbuphine through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-fed infants when maternal administration of an opioid is stopped or when breast-feeding is stopped.

    Infertility, reproductive risk

    Chronic opioid use may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to hormonal changes that may manifest as hypogonadism (gonadal suppression) and pose a reproductive risk. Although the exact causal role of opioids in the clinical manifestations of hypogonadism is unknown, patients could experience libido decrease, impotence, amenorrhea, or infertility. It is not known whether the effects on fertility are reversible. Monitor patients for symptoms of opioid-induced endocrinopathy. Patients presenting with signs or symptoms of androgen deficiency should undergo laboratory evaluation.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    bradycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    laryngeal edema / Rapid / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
    respiratory arrest / Rapid / 0-1.0
    cardiac arrest / Early / 0-1.0
    bronchospasm / Rapid / 0-1.0
    anaphylactic shock / Rapid / 0-1.0
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pulmonary edema / Early / Incidence not known
    cyanosis / Early / Incidence not known
    fetal death / Delayed / Incidence not known
    apnea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    depression / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hostility / Early / 0-1.0
    confusion / Early / 0-1.0
    euphoria / Early / 0-1.0
    hallucinations / Early / 0-1.0
    dysphoria / Early / 0-1.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-1.0
    hypotension / Rapid / 0-1.0
    hypertension / Early / 0-1.0
    edema / Delayed / 0-1.0
    wheezing / Rapid / 0-1.0
    respiratory depression / Rapid / 0-1.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-1.0
    blurred vision / Early / 0-1.0
    loss of consciousness / Rapid / Incidence not known
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypotonia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fetal bradycardia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    impotence (erectile dysfunction) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    infertility / Delayed / Incidence not known
    adrenocortical insufficiency / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tolerance / Delayed / Incidence not known
    physiological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known
    withdrawal / Early / Incidence not known
    psychological dependence / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    drowsiness / Early / 36.0-36.0
    nausea / Early / 6.0-6.0
    vomiting / Early / 6.0-6.0
    dizziness / Early / 5.0-5.0
    vertigo / Early / 5.0-5.0
    xerostomia / Early / 4.0-4.0
    headache / Early / 3.0-3.0
    restlessness / Early / 0-1.0
    flushing / Rapid / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-1.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 0-1.0
    rash / Early / 0-1.0
    weakness / Early / 0-1.0
    urinary urgency / Early / 0-1.0
    anxiety / Delayed / Incidence not known
    tremor / Early / Incidence not known
    agitation / Early / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    injection site reaction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    abdominal pain / Early / Incidence not known
    diaphoresis / Early / Incidence not known
    gonadal suppression / Delayed / Incidence not known
    amenorrhea / Delayed / Incidence not known
    libido decrease / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce the analgesic effects of dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; oxycodone. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of pentazocine with nalbuphine. Coadministration may reduce the analgesic effect of either drug and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Major) Nalbuphine may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant and CNS depressant effects of pure opiate agonists. Due to their antagonistic properties, nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as alfentanil. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Almotriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Alprazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Amitriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amoxapine: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with amoxapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with amoxapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use in necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Amphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Amphetamines: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Anticholinergics: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce the analgesic effects of dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with orphenadrine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with orphenadrine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; oxycodone. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Atropine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Major) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with nalbuphine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Azelastine: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine is combined with other CNS depressants including nalbuphine.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when azelastine is combined with other CNS depressants including nalbuphine.
    Baclofen: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with baclofen may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with baclofen to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Barbiturates: (Moderate) Additive CNS depression may occur if barbiturates are used concomitantly with nalbuphine. Caution should be exercised during concomitant use of nalbuphine and any barbiturate. Dosage reduction of one or both agents may be necessary.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Major) Nalbuphine concurrently used with some opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. If a CNS depressant needs to be used with nalbuphine, the dose of one or both drugs needs to be reduced. Due to opioid antagonistic properties, nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as benzhydrocodone. Nalbupine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbupine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbupine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benzphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Benztropine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Concomitant use of buprenorphine with other CNS depressants can lead to additive CNS depressive effects. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of buprenorphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted. It is recommended that the injectable buprenorphine dose be halved for patients who receive other drugs with CNS depressant effects; for the buprenorphine transdermal patch, start with the 5 mcg/hour patch. Monitor patients for sedation or respiratory depression.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Concomitant use of buprenorphine with other CNS depressants can lead to additive CNS depressive effects. Hypotension, profound sedation, coma, respiratory depression, or death may occur. Prior to concurrent use of buprenorphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. A dose reduction of one or both drugs may be warranted. It is recommended that the injectable buprenorphine dose be halved for patients who receive other drugs with CNS depressant effects; for the buprenorphine transdermal patch, start with the 5 mcg/hour patch. Monitor patients for sedation or respiratory depression. (Major) Naloxone reverses the analgesic and adverse effects of opiate agonists and mixed opiate agonists/antagonists (e.g., buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine). Reversal of respiratory depression by partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists may be incomplete or require higher doses of naloxone. For example, large doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. Respirations should be mechanically assisted as clinically indicated. Patients with severe pain or patients who are physically dependent on opiate analgesics can experience severe pain or withdrawal symptoms, respectively. Methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts. Clinicians should be prepared to manage possible reactions after naloxone administration.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving mixed opiate agonists/antagonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7 to 10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects (respiratory insufficiency or arrest or circulatory collapse) with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as buspirone, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Butorphanol: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression (e.g., dizziness, impaired mental function), and sedation. Nalbuphine should be used cautiously in any patient receiving these agents. If a CNS depressant needs to be used with nalbuphine, the dose of one or both drugs needs to be reduced.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of mixed opioid agonists/antagonists with cannabidiol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of mixed opioid agonists/antagonists with cannabidiol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking cannabidiol, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response. If cannabidiol is initiated in a patient taking a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of cannabidiol and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with metaxalone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with metaxalone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists-antagonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as COMT inhibitors, can potentiate the effects of the opiate agonists-antagonist and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. Prior to concurrent use of a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. If these agents are used together, reduced dosages may be necessary. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension and CNS depression.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Carisoprodol: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with carisoprodol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with carisoprodol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with cenobamate may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with cenobamate to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with nalbuphine should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with nalbuphine should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Chloral Hydrate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants like chloral hydrate can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression (e.g., dizziness, impaired mental function), and sedation. If a CNS depressant needs to be used with nalbuphine, the dose of one or both drugs needs to be reduced.
    Chlordiazepoxide: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce the analgesic effects of dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce the analgesic effects of dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Chlorzoxazone: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with chlorzoxazone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with chlorzoxazone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Clobazam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Clomipramine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Clonazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Clorazepate: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Codeine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as codeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; codeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    COMT inhibitors: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists-antagonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as COMT inhibitors, can potentiate the effects of the opiate agonists-antagonist and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. Prior to concurrent use of a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. If these agents are used together, reduced dosages may be necessary. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension and CNS depression.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with cyclobenzaprine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with cyclobenzaprine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Dantrolene: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with dantrolene may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of nalbuphine with dantrolene to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Desipramine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with deutetrabenazine may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with deutetrabenazine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking deutetrabenazine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If deutetrabenazine is prescribed for a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of deutetrabenazine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Diazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If parental diazepam is used with a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, reduce the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist dosage by at least 1/3. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Dicyclomine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce the analgesic effects of dihydrocodeine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Major) Concurrent administration of diphenoxylate/difenoxin with nalbuphine can potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of diphenoxylate/difenoxin. Use caution during coadministration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Dolasetron: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Doxepin: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as dronabinol, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Droperidol: (Major) Mixed opiate agonists/antagonists have additive or potentiating effects with droperidol. Following administration of droperidol, lower doses of the other CNS depressant should be used.
    Eletriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Enflurane: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Entacapone: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists-antagonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as COMT inhibitors, can potentiate the effects of the opiate agonists-antagonist and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. Prior to concurrent use of a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. If these agents are used together, reduced dosages may be necessary. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension and CNS depression.
    Esketamine: (Major) Closely monitor patients receiving esketamine and nalbuphine for sedation and other CNS depressant effects. Instruct patients who receive a dose of esketamine not to drive or engage in other activities requiring alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Estazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) A reduction in the dose of eszopiclone and concomitantly administered CNS depressants should be considered to minimize additive sedative effects. In addition, the risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased during co-administration of eszopiclone and other CNS depressants, which may decrease the ability to perform tasks requiring full mental alertness such as driving.
    Ethanol: (Major) Alcohol is associated with CNS depression. The combined use of alcohol and CNS depressants can lead to additive CNS depression, which could be dangerous in tasks requiring mental alertness and fatal in overdose. Alcohol taken with other CNS depressants can lead to additive respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs when prescribing CNS depressant medications. In many cases, the patient should receive a lower dose of the CNS depressant initially if the patient is not likely to be compliant with avoiding alcohol.
    Etomidate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Due to the CNS effects of ezogabine, an enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur during concurrent use of other centrally-acting medications such as nalbuphine. Patients should be monitored for excessive somnolence during concurrent therapy with this agent.
    Fenfluramine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opioid agonists-antagonists with fenfluramine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid agonists with fenfluramine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as fentanyl. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Flavoxate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Flibanserin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of flibanserin with CNS depressants, such as mixed opiate agonists/antagonists or their combinations (e.g., buprenorphine; naloxone), may increase the risk of CNS depression (e.g., dizziness, somnolence) compared to the use of flibanserin alone. Patients should avoid activities requiring full alertness (e.g., operating machinery or driving) until at least 6 hours after each dose and until they know how flibanserin affects them.
    Flurazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Fospropofol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Frovatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Gabapentin: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with gabapentin may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and respiratory depression. Limit the use of nalbuphine with gabapentin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, initiate gabapentin at the lowest recommended dose and monitor patients for symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression and respiratory depression.
    General anesthetics: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Granisetron: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as haloperidol, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Halothane: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydrocodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hydromorphone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as hydromorphone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Hyoscyamine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; oxycodone. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Imipramine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Isoflurane: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Ketamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with lasmiditan may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and serotonin syndrome. Limit the use of nalbuphine with lasmiditan to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression and serotonin syndrome.
    Lemborexant: (Moderate) Concomitant use of opiate agonists-antagonists with lemborexant may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of the opiate agonists-antagonist with lemborexant to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with nalbuphine should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence.
    Levomethadyl: (Major) Nalbuphine may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant and CNS depressant effects of pure opiate agonists. Due to their antagonistic properties, nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists.
    Levomilnacipran: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and levomilnacipran is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Levorphanol: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as levorphanol. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Linezolid: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving linezolid or within 14 days of stopping treatment with linezolid due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Lithium: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and lithium is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Lofexidine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive hypotension and sedation during coadministration of lofexidine and nalbuphine. Lofexidine can potentiate the effects of CNS depressants.
    Lorazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Lorcaserin: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and lorcaserin is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Magnesium Salts: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as opiate agonists/antagonists. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Nalbuphine should be combined cautiously with maprotiline because it could cause additive depressant effects and possible respiratory depression or hypotension.
    Mepenzolate: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Meperidine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as meperidine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as meperidine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) The CNS-depressant effects of meprobamate can be potentiated with concomitant administration of other drugs known to cause CNS depression including nalbuphine.
    Metaxalone: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with metaxalone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with metaxalone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Methadone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as methadone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Methamphetamine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and amphetamines is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Methocarbamol: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with methocarbamol may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with methocarbamol to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Methscopolamine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Methylene Blue: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and methylphenidate derivatives is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Midazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Milnacipran: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and milnacipran is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Minocycline: (Minor) Injectable minocycline contains magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as nalbuphine. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Mirtazapine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with mirtazapine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with mirtazapine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Molindone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as molindone, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Major) The use of nalbuphine is not recommended in patients who have received a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the previous 14 days due to a risk for serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If urgent use of an opioid like nalbuphine is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
    Morphine: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as morphine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of morphine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as morphine. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of morphine. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Nabilone: (Major) The use of nabilone with opiate agonist/antagonists may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression, profound sedation, or coma. If these agents are used together, a reduced dosage of either drug may be advisable. Prior to concurrent use, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. Cross-tolerance may occur between these drugs over time. Consider the patient's use of alcohol or illicit drugs. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension, CNS depression, and respiratory depression.
    Nalmefene: (Major) Naloxone, nalmefene, and naltrexone act as opiate antagonists at all opiate receptors. Administration of an opiate antagonist will override the actions of mixed opiate agonist/antagonists and precipitate opioid withdrawal effects. While opiate antagonism may be desirable in a patient with respiratory depression caused by the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, severe pain can be unmasked and opiate withdrawal symptoms may occur in patients who have received chronic opiate agonist therapy.
    Naloxone: (Major) Naloxone reverses the analgesic and adverse effects of opiate agonists and mixed opiate agonists/antagonists (e.g., buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine). Reversal of respiratory depression by partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists may be incomplete or require higher doses of naloxone. For example, large doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. Respirations should be mechanically assisted as clinically indicated. Patients with severe pain or patients who are physically dependent on opiate analgesics can experience severe pain or withdrawal symptoms, respectively. Methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts. Clinicians should be prepared to manage possible reactions after naloxone administration.
    Naltrexone: (Major) When naltrexone is used as adjuvant treatment of opiate or alcohol dependence, use is contraindicated in patients currently receiving mixed opiate agonists/antagonists. Naltrexone will antagonize the therapeutic benefits of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists and will induce a withdrawal reaction in patients with physical dependence to opioids. Also, patients should be opiate-free for at least 7 to 10 days prior to initiating naltrexone therapy. If there is any question of opioid use in the past 7-10 days and the patient is not experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms and/or the urine is negative for opioids, a naloxone challenge test needs to be performed. If a patient receives naltrexone and an opiate agonist is needed for an emergency situation, large doses of opiate agonists may ultimately overwhelm naltrexone antagonism of opiate receptors. Immediately following administration of exogenous opiate agonists, the opiate plasma concentration may be sufficient to overcome naltrexone competitive blockade, but the patient may experience deeper and more prolonged respiratory depression and thus, may be in danger of respiratory arrest and circulatory collapse. Non-receptor mediated actions like facial swelling, itching, generalized erythema, or bronchoconstriction may occur presumably due to histamine release. A rapidly acting opiate agonist is preferred as the duration of respiratory depression will be shorter. Patients receiving naltrexone may also experience opiate side effects (respiratory insufficiency or arrest or circulatory collapse) with low doses of opiate agonists. If the opiate agonist is taken in such a way that high concentrations remain in the body beyond the time naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects, serious side effects may occur.
    Naratriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Nefazodone: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with nefazodone may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with nefazodone to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Nortriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Contraindicated) Salmidorphan is contraindicated in patients who are using opiate agonists or undergoing acute opioid withdrawal. Salmidorphan increases the risk of precipitating acute opioid withdrawal in patients dependent on opioids. Before initiating salmidorphan, there should be at least a 7-day opioid-free interval from the last use of short-acting opioids, and at least a 14-day opioid-free interval from the last use of long-acting opioids. In emergency situations, if a salmidorphan-treated patient requires opiates for anesthesia or analgesia, discontinue salmidorphan. The opiate agonist should be administered by properly trained individual(s), and the patient properly monitored in a setting equipped and staffed for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In non-emergency situations, if a salmidorphan-treated patient requires opiate agonist treatment (e.g., for analgesia) discontinue salmidorphan at least 5 days before opioid treatment. Salmidorphan, as an opioid antagonist, may cause opioid treatment to be less effective or ineffective shortly after salmidorphan discontinuation. (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Oliceridine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oliceridine with opioid agonists-antagonists. Coadministration may reduce the analgesic effect of oliceridine and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
    Ondansetron: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Opicapone: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists-antagonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as COMT inhibitors, can potentiate the effects of the opiate agonists-antagonist and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. Prior to concurrent use of a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. If these agents are used together, reduced dosages may be necessary. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension and CNS depression.
    Orphenadrine: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with orphenadrine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with orphenadrine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Oxazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Oxybutynin: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as oxycodone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects of acetaminophen; oxycodone. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Oxymorphone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as oxymorphone. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Ozanimod: (Moderate) Nalbuphine should not be used in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment due to the potential for serotonergic effects. An active metabolite of ozanimod inhibits MAO-B, which may increase the potential for serotonin syndrome or increased blood pressure. If concomitant use of nalbuphine is warranted in a patient taking an MAO inhibitor, carefully observe the patient and monitor blood pressure, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Although a small number of patients treated with ozanimod were concomitantly exposed to opioids, this exposure was not adequate to rule out the possibility of an adverse reaction from coadministration.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Palonosetron: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Paroxetine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and paroxetine is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Pentazocine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of pentazocine with nalbuphine. Coadministration may reduce the analgesic effect of either drug and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of pentazocine with nalbuphine. Coadministration may reduce the analgesic effect of either drug and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. (Major) Naloxone reverses the analgesic and adverse effects of opiate agonists and mixed opiate agonists/antagonists (e.g., buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, and pentazocine). Reversal of respiratory depression by partial agonists or mixed agonist/antagonists may be incomplete or require higher doses of naloxone. For example, large doses of naloxone are required to antagonize buprenorphine. Buprenorphine antagonism is characterized by a gradual onset of the reversal effects and a decreased duration of action of the normally prolonged respiratory depression. Respirations should be mechanically assisted as clinically indicated. Patients with severe pain or patients who are physically dependent on opiate analgesics can experience severe pain or withdrawal symptoms, respectively. Methohexital appears to block the acute onset of withdrawal symptoms induced by naloxone in opiate addicts. Clinicians should be prepared to manage possible reactions after naloxone administration.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Phenothiazines: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as phenothiazines, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Pimozide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as pimozide, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. Prior to concurrent use of nalbuphine in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. If these agents are used together, a reduced dosage nalbuphine and/or pimozide may be necessary. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension, CNS depression, and respiratory depression.
    Pramipexole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, like pramipexole, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Pregabalin: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with pregabalin may cause excessive sedation, somnolence, and respiratory depression. Limit the use of nalbuphine with pregabalin to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, initiate pregabalin at the lowest recommended dose and monitor patients for symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression and respiratory depression.
    Propantheline: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Propofol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Propoxyphene: (Major) Nalbuphine may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant and CNS depressant effects of pure opiate agonists. Due to their antagonistic properties, nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists.
    Protriptyline: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Quazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Rasagiline: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving rasagiline or within 14 days of stopping treatment with rasagiline due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
    Remifentanil: (Major) Concurrent use of nalbuphine may reduce the analgesic effect of remifentanil and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. If coadministration is necessary, carefully observe the patient, especially during remifentanil initiation and dosage adjustment. Consider discontinuing remifentanil and instituting alternative analgesia if the patient is not responding appropriately. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Remimazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists-antagonists with remimazolam may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Titrate the dose of remimazolam to the desired clinical response and continuously monitor sedated patients for hypotension, airway obstruction, hypoventilation, apnea, and oxygen desaturation.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Rizatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Rotigotine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of rotigotine with other CNS depressants, such as opiate agonists-antagonists, can potentiate the sedation effects of rotigotine.
    Safinamide: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Scopolamine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Sedating H1-blockers: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as sedating H1-blockers, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Selegiline: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving selegiline or within 14 days of stopping treatment with selegiline due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
    Serotonin-Receptor Agonists: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Serotonin-Receptor Antagonists: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor antagonists. The development of serotonin syndrome has been reported with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, mostly when used in combination with other serotonergic medications. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and sertraline is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Sevoflurane: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Sibutramine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and sibutramine is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Sodium Sulfate; Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Chloride: (Minor) Because of the CNS-depressant effects of magnesium sulfate, additive central-depressant effects can occur following concurrent administration with CNS depressants such as opiate agonists/antagonists. Caution should be exercised when using these agents concurrently.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug, such as solifenacin. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and St. John's Wort is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Sufentanil: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as sufentanil. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist.
    Sumatriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Suvorexant: (Moderate) CNS depressant drugs may have cumulative effects when administered concurrently and they should be used cautiously with suvorexant. A reduction in dose of the CNS depressant may be needed. These agents include mixed opiate agonists/antagonists.
    Tapentadol: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of tapentadol and opiate agonists/antagonists (e.g., buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, or pentazocine). Opiate agonists/antagonists may partially block the analgesic, respiratory depressant, and CNS depressant effects of tapentadol. Due to their antagonistic properties, opiate agonists/antagonists may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. These agents may also be used concurrently with some opiate agonists and cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. Consider dose reduction of the opiate agonist in situations of concomitant prescription. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of pure opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the pure opiate agonist.
    Tedizolid: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving tedizolid or within 14 days of stopping treatment with tedizolid due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
    Temazepam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Tetrabenazine: (Moderate) Additive effects are possible when tetrabenazine is combined with other drugs that cause CNS depression, such as nalbuphine. Concurrent use of tetrabenazine and nalbuphine can increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension.
    Thalidomide: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of thalidomide with other central nervous system depressants such as nalbuphine due to the potential for additive sedative effects.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Thiothixene can potentiate the CNS-depressant action of other drugs such as nalbuphine. Caution should be exercised during simultaneous use of these agents due to potential excessive CNS effects or additive hypotension.
    Tizanidine: (Major) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with tizanidine may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of nalbuphine with tizanidine to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations.
    Tolcapone: (Major) Concomitant use of opiate agonists-antagonists with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, such as COMT inhibitors, can potentiate the effects of the opiate agonists-antagonist and may lead to additive CNS or respiratory depression. Prior to concurrent use of a mixed opiate agonist-antagonist in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that has developed, the duration of use, and the patient's overall response to treatment. If these agents are used together, reduced dosages may be necessary. Carefully monitor the patient for hypotension and CNS depression.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug, such as tolterodine. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Tramadol: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as tramadol. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. There is also a potential increased risk of seizures if tramadol is given with other opiates.
    Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nalbuphine and opiate agonists, such as tramadol. Nalbuphine is a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist that may block the effects of opiate agonists and reduce analgesic effects. Nalbuphine may cause withdrawal symptoms in patients receiving chronic opiate agonists. Concurrent use of nalbuphine with other opiate agonists can cause additive CNS, respiratory, and hypotensive effects. The additive or antagonistic effects are dependent upon the dose of the opiate agonist used; antagonistic effects are more common at low to moderate doses of the opiate agonist. There is also a potential increased risk of seizures if tramadol is given with other opiates.
    Trazodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of CNS depression, respiratory depression, and serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with trazodone. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Triazolam: (Major) Concomitant use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and death. Limit the use of mixed opiate agonists/antagonists with benzodiazepines to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations needed to achieve the desired clinical effect. If a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist is initiated in a patient taking a benzodiazepine, use a lower initial dose of the mixed opiate agonist/antagonist and titrate to clinical response. If a benzodiazepine is prescribed for an indication other than epilepsy in a patient taking a mixed opiate agonist/antagonist, use a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine and titrate to clinical response. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Trihexyphenidyl: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Trimethobenzamide: (Moderate) The concurrent use of trimethobenzamide with other medications that cause CNS depression, like nalbuphine, may potentiate the effects of either trimethobenzamide or nalbuphine.
    Trimipramine: (Major) Concomitant use of opioid agonists with tricyclic antidepressants may cause excessive sedation and somnolence. Limit the use of opioid pain medications with tricyclic antidepressants to only patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce initial dosage and titrate to clinical response; use the lowest effective doses and minimum treatment durations. Also monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug, such as trospium. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of nalbuphine and venlafaxine is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
    Vigabatrin: (Moderate) Vigabatrin may cause somnolence and fatigue. Drugs that can cause CNS depression, if used concomitantly with vigabatrin, may increase both the frequency and the intensity of adverse effects such as drowsiness, sedation, and dizziness. Caution should be used when vigabatrin is given with nalbuphine.
    Vilazodone: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of CNS depression and serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with vilazodone. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Vortioxetine: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with vortioxetine. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Zaleplon: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as zaleplon, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation.
    Ziconotide: (Moderate) Concurrent use of ziconotide and opiate agonists-antagonists may result in an increased incidence of dizziness and confusion. Ziconotide neither interacts with opiate receptors nor potentiates opiate-induced respiratory depression. However, in animal models, ziconotide did potentiate gastrointestinal motility reduction by opioid agonists.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lumateperone and nalbuphine. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression.
    Zolmitriptan: (Moderate) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, caution should be observed when administering nalbuphine with serotonin-receptor agonists. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risks and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) Concomitant use of nalbuphine with other CNS depressants, such as zolpidem, can potentiate the effects of nalbuphine on respiratory depression, CNS depression, and sedation. If used together, a reduction in the dose of one or both drugs may be needed. For Intermezzo brand of sublingual zolpidem tablets, reduce the dose to 1.75 mg/night. Concurrent use of zolpidem with other sedative-hypnotics, including other zolpidem products, at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Limited data suggest that nalbuphine is excreted in breast milk but only in a small amount (less than 1% of administered dose) and with a clinically insignificant effect. Monitor infants exposed to nalbuphine through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breast-fed infants when maternal administration of an opioid is stopped or when breast-feeding is stopped.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Nalbuphine is an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist at mu opioid receptors. Nalbuphine is a potent analgesic. Its analgesic potency is essentially equivalent to that of morphine on a milligram basis up to a dosage of approximately 30 mg. The opioid antagonist activity of nalbuphine is 10 times that of pentazocine. Nalbuphine has potent opioid antagonist activity at doses equal to or lower than its analgesic dose. When administered after or concurrently with mu opioid analgesics, nalbuphine may partially reverse or block opioid-induced respiratory depression from the mu opioid agonist analgesic and may precipitate withdrawal in patients dependent on opioids. Nalbuphine may produce the same degree of respiratory depression as equianalgesic doses of morphine; however, nalbuphine exhibits a ceiling effect such that increases in dose more than 30 mg do not produce further respiratory depression in the absence of other CNS active medications affecting respiration.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Nalbuphine is administered intramuscularly, intravenously, and subcutaneously. The metabolic pathway for nalbuphine has not been defined, but is likely hepatic. Nalbuphine is excreted by the kidneys. In clinical studies, the duration of analgesic activity has been reported to range from 3 to 6 hours. The plasma half-life of nalbuphine is 5 hours.

    Intravenous Route

    The onset of action of nalbuphine occurs within 2 to 3 minutes after intravenous administration.

    Intramuscular Route

    The onset of action of nalbuphine occurs in less than 15 minutes after intramuscular administration.

    Subcutaneous Route

    The onset of action of nalbuphine occurs in less than 15 minutes after subcutaneous administration.