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    Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) and Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI) Combinations

    BOXED WARNING

    Hepatitis, hepatitis B and HIV coinfection, hepatitis B exacerbation, hepatitis C and HIV coinfection

    Emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide is not indicated for the treatment of hepatitis infections. Individuals who are coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B or C may be at increased risk for treatment-associated hepatotoxicities. HIV treatment guidelines recommend all patients presenting with HIV infection undergo testing for hepatitis C, with continued annual screening advised for those persons considered high risk for acquiring hepatitis C. If hepatitis C and HIV coinfection is identified, consider treating both viral infections concurrently. For most patients, the benefits of concurrent therapy outweigh the potential risks (i.e., drug-induced hepatic injury, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities); therefore, it is recommended to initiate a fully suppressive antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and a hepatitis C regimen in all coinfected patients regardless of CD4 count. However, for antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 counts greater than 500 cells/mm3, consideration may be given to deferring ARV until the hepatitis C treatment regimen has been completed. Conversely, for patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3, consider delaying initiation of the hepatitis C treatment regimen until the patient is stable on fully suppressive ARV regimen. Patients who present with HIV infection should also be screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection to assure appropriate treatment. Patients with hepatitis B and HIV coinfection should be started on a fully suppressive ARV regimen with activity against both viruses (regardless of CD4 counts and HBV DNA concentrations). HIV treatment guidelines recommend these patients receive an ARV regimen that contains a dual NRTI backbone of tenofovir alafenamide with emtricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with either emtricitabine or lamivudine. If tenofovir cannot be used, entecavir should be used in combination with a fully suppressive ARV regimen (note: entecavir should not be considered part of the ARV regimen). Avoid using single-drug therapy to treat HBV (i.e., lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, or entecavir as the only active agent) as this may result in HIV resistant strains. Further, HBV treatment regimens that include adefovir or telbivudine should also be avoided, as these regimens are associated with a higher incidence of toxicities and increased rates of HBV treatment failure. Most coinfected patients should continue treatment indefinitely with the goal of maximal HIV suppression and prevention of HBV relapse. Patients with coexisting HBV and HIV infections who discontinue emtricitabine or tenofovir may experience severe acute hepatitis B exacerbation with some cases resulting in hepatic decompensation and hepatic failure. Therefore, patients coinfected with HBV and HIV who discontinue emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir should have transaminase concentrations monitored every 6 weeks for the first 3 months, and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. If appropriate, resumption of anti-hepatitis B treatment may be required. For patients who refuse a fully suppressive ARV regimen, but still requires treatment for HBV, consider 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa; do not administer HIV-active medications in the absence of a fully suppressive ARV regimen. Instruct hepatitis and HIV coinfected patients to avoid consuming alcohol, and offer vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B as appropriate.[60614] [46638] [34362]

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Combination of 2 NRTIs and 1 NNRTI
    Indicated as a complete regimen for treatment of HIV-1 infections in antiretroviral-naive patients (weighing at least 35 kg) with baseline HIV RNA of 100,000 copies/mL or less, and certain virologically-stable (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/mL) patients without history of treatment failure or resistance
    Administered as a single tablet once daily with a meal

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    ODEFSEY

    HOW SUPPLIED

    ODEFSEY Oral Tab: 200-25-25mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in antiretroviral treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 RNA concentrations 100,000 copies/mL or less at treatment initiation and certain virologically-stable (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL) treatment-experienced patients.
    NOTE: Prior to initiating therapy, health care providers are advised to consider the following findings from rilpivirine clinical trials: virologic failures occurred more frequently in patients with baseline HIV-1 RNA concentrations more than 100,000 copies/mL than in patients with concentrations 100,000 copies/mL or less; patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3 experienced more virologic failures than those with counts 200 cells/mm3 or more (regardless of HIV-1 RNA concentrations); virologic failures associated with resistance and cross-resistance to the NNRTI class occurred more frequently in rilpivirine-treated patients than efavirenz-treated patients; a higher rate of tenofovir and lamivudine/emtricitabine resistance developed in rilpivirine-treated patients than in efavirenz-treated patients.
    NOTE: Treatment-experienced patients must meet the following criteria: have displayed consistent viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL) for at least 6 months prior to switching; no history of virologic failure; no current or past history of resistance to emtricitabine, rilpivirine, or tenofovir. To assess potential virologic failure or rebound, additional HIV-1 RNA monitoring is recommended for these patients.
    NOTE: Not indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; safety and efficacy have not been established in patients with HBV and HIV coinfection.
    Oral dosage
    Adults weighing 35 kg or more

    1 tablet (200 mg emtricitabine; 25 mg rilpivirine; 25 mg tenofovir alafenamide) PO once daily. Not to be administered with other antiretroviral medications, as drug constitutes a complete treatment regimen.

    Children and Adolescents 12 to 17 years weighing 35 kg or more

    1 tablet (200 mg emtricitabine; 25 mg rilpivirine; 25 mg tenofovir alafenamide) PO once daily. Not to be administered with other antiretroviral medications, as drug constitutes a complete treatment regimen.[60614]

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    1 tablet/day PO (200 mg emtricitabine; 25 mg rilpivirine; 25 mg tenofovir alafenamide).

    Geriatric

    1 tablet/day PO (200 mg emtricitabine; 25 mg rilpivirine; 25 mg tenofovir alafenamide).

    Adolescents

    weighing 35 kg or more: 1 tablet/day PO (200 mg emtricitabine; 25 mg rilpivirine; 25 mg tenofovir alafenamide).
    weighing less than 35 kg: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    12 years and weighing 35 kg or more: 1 tablet/day PO (200 mg emtricitabine; 25 mg rilpivirine; 25 mg tenofovir alafenamide).
    1 to 11 years or 12 years weighing less than 35 kg: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Dosage adjustments are not required for mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B); safety and efficacy of this fixed-dose combination treatment have not been established in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C).[60614]

    Renal Impairment

    CrCl 30 mL/minute or more: No dosage adjustment needed.
    CrCl 15 to 29 mL/minute: Use is not recommended.
    CrCl less than 15 mL/minute not receiving chronic hemodialysis: Use is not recommended.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    CrCl less than 15 mL/minute receiving chronic hemodialysis: No dosage adjustment needed. Use with caution; increased monitoring is recommended for rilpivirine-related adverse effects, as rilpivirine concentrations may be increased due to alteration of drug absorption, distribution, and metabolism secondary to renal dysfunction.
    Administer emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide after completion of the hemodialysis treatment on dialysis days.

    ADMINISTRATION

     
    NOTE: Emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide is a complete HIV treatment regimen. Do not administer with other antiretroviral medications.

    Oral Administration

    Administer with a meal.

    STORAGE

    ODEFSEY:
    - Store and dispense in original container
    - Store below 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Unplanned antiretroviral therapy interruption may be necessary in specific situations, such as serious drug toxicity, intercurrent illness or surgery precluding oral intake (e.g., gastroenteritis or pancreatitis), severe hyperemesis gravidarum unresponsive to antiemetics, or drug non-availability. If short-term treatment interruption (i.e., less than 1 or 2 days) is necessary, in general it is recommended that all antiretroviral agents be discontinued simultaneously, especially if the interruption is because of serious toxicity. However, if a short-term treatment interruption is anticipated in the case of elective surgery, the pharmacokinetic properties and food requirements of specific drugs should be considered. When the antiretroviral regimen contains drugs with differing half-lives, stopping all drugs simultaneously may result in functional monotherapy of the drug with the longest half-life. For example, after discontinuation, the duration of detectable drug concentrations of efavirenz and nevirapine range from less than 1 week to more than 3 weeks. Simultaneously stopping all drugs in a regimen containing these agents may result in functional monotherapy with the NNRTI and may increase the risk of NNRTI-resistant mutations. Planned long-term treatment interruptions are not recommended due to the potential for HIV disease progression (i.e., declining CD4 counts, viral rebound, acute viral syndrome), development of minor HIV-associated manifestations or serious non-AIDS complications, development of drug resistance, increased risk of HIV transmission, and increased risk for opportunistic infections. If therapy must be discontinued, counsel patient on the potential risks and closely monitor for any clinical or laboratory abnormalities.

    Alcoholism, females, hepatic disease, hepatomegaly, hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis, obesity

    Lactic acidosis and hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported following use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (another prodrug of tenofovir), both alone and in combination with other antiretroviral medications. Treatment with emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity or lactic acidosis, which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked elevated hepatic enzymes. Although these adverse events may occur in any drug recipient, some risk factors include hepatic disease (e.g., alcoholism), obesity, and prolonged nucleoside exposure. In addition, a majority of these cases have been in females; it is unknown if being pregnant augments the incidence of this syndrome in patients receiving nucleoside analogs. However, because being pregnant itself can mimic some of the early symptoms of the lactic acid and hepatic steatosis syndrome or be associated with other significant disorders of liver metabolism, clinicians need to be alert for early diagnosis of this syndrome. Pregnant women receiving nucleoside analogs should have LFTs and serum electrolytes assessed more frequently during the last trimester and any new symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly.

    Hepatitis, hepatitis B and HIV coinfection, hepatitis B exacerbation, hepatitis C and HIV coinfection

    Emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide is not indicated for the treatment of hepatitis infections. Individuals who are coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B or C may be at increased risk for treatment-associated hepatotoxicities. HIV treatment guidelines recommend all patients presenting with HIV infection undergo testing for hepatitis C, with continued annual screening advised for those persons considered high risk for acquiring hepatitis C. If hepatitis C and HIV coinfection is identified, consider treating both viral infections concurrently. For most patients, the benefits of concurrent therapy outweigh the potential risks (i.e., drug-induced hepatic injury, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities); therefore, it is recommended to initiate a fully suppressive antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and a hepatitis C regimen in all coinfected patients regardless of CD4 count. However, for antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 counts greater than 500 cells/mm3, consideration may be given to deferring ARV until the hepatitis C treatment regimen has been completed. Conversely, for patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3, consider delaying initiation of the hepatitis C treatment regimen until the patient is stable on fully suppressive ARV regimen. Patients who present with HIV infection should also be screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection to assure appropriate treatment. Patients with hepatitis B and HIV coinfection should be started on a fully suppressive ARV regimen with activity against both viruses (regardless of CD4 counts and HBV DNA concentrations). HIV treatment guidelines recommend these patients receive an ARV regimen that contains a dual NRTI backbone of tenofovir alafenamide with emtricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with either emtricitabine or lamivudine. If tenofovir cannot be used, entecavir should be used in combination with a fully suppressive ARV regimen (note: entecavir should not be considered part of the ARV regimen). Avoid using single-drug therapy to treat HBV (i.e., lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, or entecavir as the only active agent) as this may result in HIV resistant strains. Further, HBV treatment regimens that include adefovir or telbivudine should also be avoided, as these regimens are associated with a higher incidence of toxicities and increased rates of HBV treatment failure. Most coinfected patients should continue treatment indefinitely with the goal of maximal HIV suppression and prevention of HBV relapse. Patients with coexisting HBV and HIV infections who discontinue emtricitabine or tenofovir may experience severe acute hepatitis B exacerbation with some cases resulting in hepatic decompensation and hepatic failure. Therefore, patients coinfected with HBV and HIV who discontinue emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir should have transaminase concentrations monitored every 6 weeks for the first 3 months, and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. If appropriate, resumption of anti-hepatitis B treatment may be required. For patients who refuse a fully suppressive ARV regimen, but still requires treatment for HBV, consider 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa; do not administer HIV-active medications in the absence of a fully suppressive ARV regimen. Instruct hepatitis and HIV coinfected patients to avoid consuming alcohol, and offer vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B as appropriate.[60614] [46638] [34362]

    Black patients, Hispanic patients

    Increased body weight has been observed in antiretroviral-naive patients after starting treatment with tenofovir alafenamide and after switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide. Predictors and mechanisms for the increase in weight are still unclear; however, the weight gain appears to disproportionately affect females, Hispanic patients, and Black patients (particularly Black women). It is unknown whether the increase in weight is associated with significant cardio-metabolic risks or if it is reversible upon treatment discontinuation.

    Depression, suicidal ideation

    Emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide therapy may be associated with mood or behavior changes. Patients receiving treatment with rilpivirine have experienced adverse reactions affecting the central nervous system (CNS), including depressed mood, depression, dysphoria, negative thoughts, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. The majority of these psychiatric adverse events were mild to moderate in severity, with only 1% of patients requiring treatment discontinuation. Prior to initiating emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide therapy, inform patients of the potential for psychiatric adverse events. Additionally, instruct patients to seek immediate medical evaluation if severe depressive symptoms, or other unusual moods or behaviors, develop during therapy.

    Osteomalacia, osteoporosis

    During clinical trials, significant reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) were observed in up to 10% of treatment-naive adults receiving tenofovir alafenamide containing regimens. However, treatment-experienced patients who were switched from a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen to a tenofovir alafenamide regimen experienced increased BMD at the lumbar spine (1.61% to 1.65%) and total hip (1.04% to 1.28%). The BMD for those patients continuing on a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen remained stable or slightly decreased (-0.05% to 0.08% lumbar spine; -0.13% to -0.25% total hip). The clinical significance of the change in BMD and biochemical markers are unknown. Consideration may be given to monitoring BMD in drug recipients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or are at substantial risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis. Close monitoring is also recommended for patients experiencing bone pain or pain in the extremities, as these may be signs of osteomalacia. While not reported during tenofovir alafenamide clinical trials, cases of osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy have been reported with the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. If bone abnormalities are suspected, appropriate consultation should be obtained. In addition, consider supplementation with calcium and vitamin D for all patients.

    Renal disease, renal failure, renal impairment

    Both emtricitabine and tenofovir (the active metabolite of tenofovir alafenamide) are eliminated via the kidney; therefore, emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl 15 to 29 mL/minute) or patients with end-stage renal disease (CrCl less than 15 mL/minute) who are not receiving chronic hemodialysis. Use emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide with caution in adults with end-stage renal disease who are receiving hemodialysis; increased monitoring is recommended for rilpivirine-related adverse effects, as rilpivirine concentrations may be increased due to alteration of drug absorption, distribution, and metabolism secondary to renal dysfunction. Tenofovir prodrugs (i.e., tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir alafenamide) have been associated with the development of renal toxicity. During postmarketing use of tenofovir alafenamide, cases of renal impairment, including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, proximal renal tubulopathy, and Fanconi syndrome have been reported. In most cases, potential confounders were identified that may have contributed to the reported renal events; however, it is also possible these factors could have predisposed patients to tenofovir-related adverse events. During adult clinical trials, less than 1% of tenofovir alafenamide recipients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate more than 50 mL/minute required treatment discontinuation due to worsening renal function or renal adverse events; in patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30 to 50 mL/minute, 3% of patients required treatment discontinuation. Assess estimated creatinine clearance, urine glucose, and urine protein in all patients before treatment, and as indicated during treatment. Assess serum phosphorus concentrations before and periodically during treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease. Discontinue treatment in patients who develop clinically significant decreases in renal function or evidence of Fanconi syndrome. In addition, avoid concurrent use with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, including high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), as use of these medications together increases the risk for developing renal-related adverse reactions. [60614]

    Serious rash

    Patients receiving emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide may be at increased risk of developing a serious rash. According to the manufacturer, severe skin and hypersensitivity reactions, including Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), have been reported during post-marketing use of rilpivirine containing regimens. In some cases these skin reactions were accompanied by constitutional findings (i.e., fever) or organ dysfunction (i.e., elevated hepatic enzymes). Health care providers are advised to closely monitor the patients clinical status (including laboratory parameters) during treatment. Immediately discontinue rilpivirine containing regimens and initiate appropriate therapy in any patient who develops signs of severe skin reactions, such as severe rash or rash accompanied by fever, blisters, mucosal involvement, conjunctivitis, facial edema, angioedema, hepatitis, or eosinophilia.

    QT prolongation, torsade de pointes

    Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) administered to healthy subjects has resulted in prolongation of the QT interval. Healthcare providers are advised to use caution when co-administering emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide with medications that have the potential to cause QT prolongation and torsade de pointes, or those that have the potential to reduce the elimination of rilpivirine.

    Autoimmune disease, Graves' disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, immune reconstitution syndrome

    Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. During the initial phase of HIV treatment, patients whose immune systems respond to emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Pneumocystis pneumonia, or tuberculosis (TB), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment. In addition, autoimmune disease, including Graves' disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis, has been reported in the setting of autoimmune reconstitution; the time to onset is variable and may occur months after treatment initiation.

    Hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia

    Consider patient specific factors, such as preexisting hyperlipidemia (i.e., hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia), when selecting an antiretroviral treatment regimen. According to CDC guidelines, lipid concentrations are lower in patients treated with regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate than in those receiving tenofovir alafenamide. Pooled data from clinical trials found tenofovir alafenamide recipients experienced a +6 point increase in fasting LDL cholesterol, -4 point decrease in fasting HDL cholesterol, and an +11 point increase in fasting triglyceride concentration from baseline by treatment weak 48. If a patient develops hyperlipidemia during treatment, possible interventions include dietary modification, use of lipid lowering agents, or modification of treatment regimen. Obtain a fasting lipid profile at entry of care, initiation or modification of antiretroviral therapy, every 3 months if last test was abnormal, or every 12 months if last test was within normal limits.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection resistance

    Testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection resistance is recommended in all antiretroviral treatment-naive patients at the time of HIV diagnosis, regardless of whether treatment will be initiated. Additionally, perform resistance testing prior to initiating or changing any HIV treatment regimen. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV strains has been both well documented and associated with suboptimal virologic response to initial antiretroviral therapy. In high-income countries (e.g., US, some European countries, Australia, Japan), approximately 10% to 17% of treatment-naive individuals have resistance mutations to at least 1 antiretroviral drug; up to 8% (but generally less than 5%) of transmitted viruses will exhibit resistance to drugs from more than 1 class. Therefore, resistance testing at baseline can help optimize treatment and, thus, virologic response. In the absence of therapy, resistant viruses may decline over time to less than the detection limit of standard resistance tests, but may still increase the risk of treatment failure when therapy is eventually initiated. Thus, if therapy is deferred, resistance testing should still be performed during acute HIV infection with the genotypic resistance test result kept in the patient's medical record until it becomes clinically useful. Additionally, because of the possibility of acquisition of another drug-resistant virus before treatment initiation, repeat resistance testing at the time therapy is initiated would be prudent. Resistance to the rilpivirine component of emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide has been associated with virologic failure. In clinical studies, 44% of rilpivirine virologic failures had genotypic and phenotypic resistance to rilpivirine. Patients who develop rilpivirine resistance and experience treatment failure often have cross-resistance to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine). Cross-resistance has not been demonstrated between rilpivirine and emtricitabine or tenofovir.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Safety and efficacy of emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide have not been established in pediatric patients (i.e., neonates, infants, children, and adolescents) weighing less than 35 kg.[60614]

    Pregnancy

    Antiretroviral therapy should be provided to all women during pregnancy, regardless of HIV RNA concentrations or CD4 cell count. Using highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) to maximally suppress viral replication is the most effective strategy to prevent the development of resistance and to minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. In treatment-naive women, begin HAART as soon as pregnancy is recognized or HIV is diagnosed, without waiting for the results of resistance testing; subsequent modifications to the treatment regimen should be made once the test results are available. Women who are currently receiving antiretroviral treatment when pregnancy is recognized should continue their treatment regimen if it is currently effective in suppressing viral replication; consider resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations are greater than 500 copies/mL. For women not currently receiving HAART, but who have previously received treatment, obtain a complete and accurate history of all prior antiretroviral regimens used and results of prior resistance testing, and perform resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations are greater than 500 copies/mL; treatment should be initiated prior to receiving resistance test results. HIV guidelines recommend emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide as an alternative treatment option for use during pregnancy. However, because pharmacokinetic data show decreased rilpivirine exposures during the second and third trimesters, close monitoring of viral loads is recommended during pregnancy (i.e., every 1 to 2 months). Available data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, which includes first trimester exposures to emtricitabine (more than 3,900 exposures), rilpivirine (more than 550 exposures), and tenofovir alafenamide (more than 520 exposures), have shown no difference in the risk of overall major birth defects when compared to the 2.7% background rate among pregnant women in the US. When exposure occurred in the first trimester, the prevalence of defects was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.2 to 3.2) for emtricitabine, 1.4% (95% CI: 0.6 to 2.8) for rilpivirine, and 4.2% (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.3) for tenofovir alafenamide. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. An association of mitochondrial dysfunction in infants and in utero antiretroviral exposure has been suggested, but not established. While the development of severe or fatal mitochondrial disease in exposed infants appears to be extremely rare, more intensive monitoring of hematologic and electrolyte parameters during the first few weeks of life is advised. Nucleoside analogs have been associated with the development of lactic acidosis, especially during pregnancy. It is unclear if pregnancy augments the incidence of lactic acidosis/hepatic steatosis in patients receiving nucleoside analogs. However, because pregnancy can mimic some of the early symptoms of the lactic acid/hepatic steatosis syndrome or be associated with other significant disorders of liver metabolism, clinicians need to be alert for early diagnosis of this syndrome. Pregnant women receiving nucleoside analogs should have LFTs and serum electrolytes assessed more frequently during the last trimester and any new symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly. Regular laboratory monitoring is recommended to determine antiretroviral efficacy. Monitor CD4 counts at the initial visit. Women who have been on HAART for at least 2 years and have consistent viral suppression and CD4 counts consistently greater than 300 cells/mm3 do not need CD4 counts monitored after the initial visit during the pregnancy. However, CD4 counts should be monitored every 3 months during pregnancy for women on HAART less than 2 years, women with CD4 count less than 300 cells/mm3, or women with inconsistent adherence or detectable viral loads. Monitor plasma HIV RNA at the initial visit, 2 to 4 weeks after initiating or changing therapy, monthly until undetectable, then at least every 3 months during pregnancy, and at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Perform antiretroviral resistance assay (genotypic testing, and if indicated, phenotypic testing) at baseline in all women with HIV RNA concentrations greater than 500 copies/mL, unless they have already been tested for resistance. First trimester ultrasound is recommended to confirm gestational age and provide an accurate estimation of gestational age at delivery. A second trimester ultrasound can be used for both anatomical survey and determination of gestational age in those patients not seen until later in gestation. Perform standard glucose screening in women receiving antiretroviral therapy at 24 to 28 weeks gestation, although it should be noted that some experts would perform earlier screening with ongoing chronic protease inhibitor-based therapy initiated prior to pregnancy, similar to recommendations for women with high-risk factors for glucose intolerance. Liver function testing is recommended within 2 to 4 weeks after initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy, and approximately every 3 months thereafter during pregnancy (or as needed). All pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of adherence to their antiretroviral regimen to reduce the potential for the development of resistance and perinatal transmission. It is strongly recommended that antiretroviral therapy, once initiated, not be discontinued. If a woman decides to discontinue therapy, a consultation with an HIV specialist is recommended. There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors outcomes in pregnant patients exposed to emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide; information about the registry can be obtained at www.apregistry.com or by calling 1-800-258-4263.[23512] [60614]

    Breast-feeding

    To reduce the risk of postnatal transmission, mothers with HIV within the United States are advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to avoid breast-feeding. This recommendation applies to both untreated women and women who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, including emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide. If a mother with HIV opts to breast-feed, the infant should undergo immediate diagnostic and virologic HIV testing. Testing should continue throughout breast-feeding and up to 6 months after cessation of breast-feeding. For expert consultation, health care workers may contact the Perinatal HIV Hotline (888-448-8765).[42452] There is limited experience using rilpivirine and tenofovir alafenamide during breast-feeding and their excretion into breast milk is unknown. Limited data suggest small amounts of emtricitabine is excreted into breast milk. One study estimated the exposure to emtricitabine in exclusively breast-fed infants at approximately 2% of the recommended infant dose. Other antiretroviral medications whose passage into human breast milk have been evaluated include tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, nevirapine, zidovudine, lamivudine, and nelfinavir.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    depression / Delayed / 1.0-5.6
    rash / Early / 1.0-1.0
    suicidal ideation / Delayed / 0.6-0.6
    lactic acidosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatitis B exacerbation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic decompensation / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Fanconi syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nephrotoxicity / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal tubular necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nephrotic syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    dysphoria / Early / 9.0-9.0
    steatosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatomegaly / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    osteoporosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypertriglyceridemia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    headache / Early / 0-19.0
    fatigue / Early / 1.0-14.0
    nausea / Early / 1.0-11.0
    dizziness / Early / 8.0-8.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 8.0-8.0
    vomiting / Early / 6.0-6.0
    insomnia / Early / 0-2.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-1.0
    weight gain / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Abacavir; Dolutegravir; Lamivudine: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Abacavir; Lamivudine, 3TC: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Abacavir; Lamivudine, 3TC; Zidovudine, ZDV: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Abarelix: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as abarelix. In addition to avoiding drug interactions, the potential for Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be reduced by avoiding the use of QT prolonging drugs in patients at substantial risk for TdP.
    Acalabrutinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of acalabrutinib and tenofovir alafenamide may increase the absorption and plasma concentration of tenofovir alafenamide. Acalabrutinib is an inhibitor of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporter in vitro; it may inhibit intestinal BCRP. Tenofovir alafenamide is a BCRP substrate.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aclidinium; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Acyclovir: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as acyclovir. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and acyclovir are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus if tenofovir alafenamide is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as acyclovir. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Concurrent administration with drugs that decrease renal function may increase concentrations of tenofovir. In addition, use with drugs that are also eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of the co-administered drug. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; a majority of the cases occurred in patients who had underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Adefovir: (Major) Avoid coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with adefovir. Both tenofovir and adefovir are primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Concurrent administration may increase concentrations of both drugs resulting in additive nephrotoxicity. If coadministration is necessary, patients should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein. (Major) Patients who are concurrently taking adefovir (a nucleotide analog) with antiretrovirals (i.e., anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)) are at risk of developing lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs alone or in combination with antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women; obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may also be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient with known risk factors for hepatic disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Suspend adefovir in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations). (Moderate) Patients who are concurrently taking adefovir with emtricitabine are at risk of developing lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis. Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs alone or in combination with antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women; obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may also be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient with known risk factors for hepatic disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Suspend adefovir in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).
    Albuterol: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering aldesleukin, IL-2 with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Aldesleukin is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Alfuzosin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with alfuzosin. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation and alfuzosin may also prolong the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner.
    Alogliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Amikacin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aminoglycosides: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aminosalicylate sodium, Aminosalicylic acid: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Amiodarone: (Major) The concomitant use of amiodarone and rilpivirine should only be done after careful assessment of risks versus benefits. If possible, avoid coadministration. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval. Amiodarone, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Although the frequency of TdP is less with amiodarone than with other Class III agents, amiodarone is still associated with a risk of TdP. Due to the extremely long half-life of amiodarone, a drug interaction is possible for days to weeks after discontinuation of amiodarone. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering amiodarone with tenofovir alafenamide due to an increased potential for adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. Amiodarone is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate. Coadministration may result in increased tenofovir plasma concentrations. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Amisulpride: (Major) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation when amisulpride is administered with rilpivirine. Amisulpride causes dose- and concentration- dependent QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Amitriptyline: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering clarithromycin with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. When possible, alternative antibiotics should be considered. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Also, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as clarithromycin. (Moderate) Coadministration of clarithromycin and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate. However, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD): (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as amphotericin B. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC): (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as amphotericin B. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB): (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as amphotericin B. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Amphotericin B: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as amphotericin B. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Anagrelide: (Major) Torsades de pointes (TdP) and ventricular tachycardia have been reported during post-marketing use of anagrelide. A cardiovascular examination, including an ECG, should be obtained in all patients prior to initiating anagrelide therapy. Monitor patients during anagrelide therapy for cardiovascular effects and evaluate as necessary. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with anagrelide include rilpivirine.
    Antacids: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Apalutamide: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of apalutamide and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Apalutamide is a strong inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering apomorphine concomitantly with rilpivirine since concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Dose-related QTc prolongation is associated with therapeutic apomorphine exposure.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if rilpivirine and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in rilpivirine-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of rilpivirine. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Arformoterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with aripiprazole as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. QT prolongation has occurred during therapeutic use of aripiprazole and following overdose.
    Armodafinil: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering armodafinil with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. Armodafinil is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Major) Concurrent use of arsenic trioxide and rilpivirine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If possible, rilpivirine should be discontinued prior to initiating arsenic trioxide therapy. QT prolongation should be expected with the administration of arsenic trioxide. TdP and complete atrioventricular block have been reported. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) Concurrent use of rilpivirine and artemether; lumefantrine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Consider ECG monitoring if rilpivirine must be used with or after artemether; lumefantrine treatment. Administration of artemether; lumefantrine is associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation. (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as artemether. In addition to avoiding drug interactions, the potential for torsade de pointes (TdP) can be reduced by avoiding the use of QT prolonging drugs in patients at substantial risk for TdP. Consider ECG monitoring if rilpivirine must be used with or after artemether; lumefantrine treatment.
    Asenapine: (Major) Asenapine has been associated with QT prolongation. According to the manufacturer of asenapine, the drug should be avoided in combination with other agents also known to have this effect. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as asenapine.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering atazanavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Atazanavir is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) Concurrent use of atazanavir with tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir serum concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1/1B3); atazanavir is an OATP1B1 inhibitor. Monitor for increased toxicities if these drugs are given together.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering atazanavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Atazanavir is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) Concurrent use of atazanavir with tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir serum concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1/1B3); atazanavir is an OATP1B1 inhibitor. Monitor for increased toxicities if these drugs are given together. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of tenofovir may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1/1B3). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for all three transporters.
    Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with atomoxetine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. QT prolongation has also occurred during therapeutic use of atomoxetine and following overdose.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Azithromycin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of azithromycin with rilpivirine due to the increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been spontaneously reported during azithromycin postmarketing surveillance. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Bacitracin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as bacitracin. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Barium Sulfate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Bedaquiline: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering bedaquiline with rilpivirine. Bedaquiline has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Prior to initiating bedaquiline, obtain serum electrolyte concentrations and a baseline ECG. An ECG should also be performed at least 2, 12, and 24 weeks after starting bedaquiline therapy. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of phenobarbital and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Phenobarbital is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with phenobarbital is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Bepridil: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as bepridil. In addition to avoiding drug interactions, the potential for Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be reduced by avoiding the use of QT prolonging drugs in patients at substantial risk for TdP.
    Berotralstat: (Moderate) Coadministration of rilpivirine with berotralstat may result in increased plasma concentrations of rilpivirine, leading to an increase in rilpivirine-related adverse effects. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and berotralstat is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with berotralstat may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and berotralstat is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Bexarotene: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering bexarotene with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Bexarotene is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Although dose adjustments are not recommended, close clinical monitoring is advised when administering boceprevir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. When these drugs are administered concurrently, the Cmax and AUC of rilpivirine are significantly increased. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways of boceprevir and rilpivirine. Boceprevir is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering boceprevir with tenofovir alafenamide due to an increased potential for adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. Boceprevir is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate. Coadministration may result in increased tenofovir plasma concentrations. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering bosentan with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Bosentan is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and BCRP. Brigatinib inhibits both P-gp and BCRP in vitro and may have the potential to increase concentrations of substrates of these transporters.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Bupivacaine; Meloxicam: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Buprenorphine has been associated with QT prolongation and has a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). FDA-approved labeling for some buprenorphine products recommend avoiding use with Class 1A and Class III antiarrhythmic medications while other labels recommend avoiding use with any drug that has the potential to prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine, Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Coadministration may further increase the risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Buprenorphine has been associated with QT prolongation and has a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). FDA-approved labeling for some buprenorphine products recommend avoiding use with Class 1A and Class III antiarrhythmic medications while other labels recommend avoiding use with any drug that has the potential to prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine, Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Coadministration may further increase the risk of QT prolongation and TdP.
    Butabarbital: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Cabozantinib: (Minor) Monitor for an increase in both cabozantinib- and tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration is necessary. Cabozantinib is a Multidrug Resistance Protein 2 (MRP2) substrate and tenofovir is an MRP2 inhibitor. MRP2 inhibitors have the potential to increase plasma concentrations of cabozantinib. Cabozantinib is also P-gp inhibitor and has the potential to increase plasma concentrations of P-gp substrates such as tenofovir. The clinical relevance of either of these interactions is unknown.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Calcium Carbonate; Famotidine; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Coadministration with famotidine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of famotidine for at least 12 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Cannabidiol: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with cannabidiol may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate and cannabidiol is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Capmatinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with capmatinib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and BCRP substrate and capmatinib is a P-gp and BCRP inhibitor.
    Carbamazepine: (Contraindicated) Coadministration of carbamazepine and rilpivirine is contraindicated due to the potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance to rilpivirine or the class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and carbamazepine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with carbamazepine is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure
    Carboplatin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as carboplatin. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Carvedilol: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with carvedilol, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as carvedilol, may increase absorption of tenofovir alafenamide, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering cenobamate with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Cenobamate is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer and rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Ceritinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ceritinib with rilpivirine if possible due to the risk of QT prolongation; plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may also increase. If concomitant use is unavoidable, periodically monitor ECGs and electrolytes; an interruption of ceritinib therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate that has been associated with QT prolongation at supratherapeutic doses (75 to 300 mg per day). Ceritinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor that has also been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation. Coadministration with another strong CYP3A4 inhibitor increased the AUC of rilpivirine by 1.49-fold.
    Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering chloramphenicol with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Chloramphenicol is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Chloroquine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of chloroquine with rilpivirine due to the increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Chloroquine is associated with an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP); the risk of QT prolongation is increased with higher chloroquine doses. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Concurrent use of chlorpromazine and rilpivirine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Phenothiazines have also been associated with QT prolongation and/or TdP. This risk is generally higher at elevated drugs concentrations of phenothiazines. Chlorpromazine is specifically associated with an established risk of QT prolongation and TdP; case reports have included patients receiving therapeutic doses of chlorpromazine.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Cidofovir: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as cidofovir. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and cidofovir are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir, with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as cidofovir. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Coadministration with cimetidine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of H2 receptor antagonist for at least 12 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with ciprofloxacin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Rare cases of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported with ciprofloxacin during postmarketing surveillance.
    Cisapride: (Contraindicated) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Because of the potential for torsades de pointes, use of cisapride with rilpivirine is contraindicated.
    Cisplatin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as cisplatin. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Citalopram: (Major) Concurrent use of citalopram and rilpivirine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If concurrent therapy is considered essential, ECG monitoring is recommended. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Citalopram also causes dose-dependent QT interval prolongation.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering clarithromycin with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. When possible, alternative antibiotics should be considered. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Also, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as clarithromycin. (Moderate) Coadministration of clarithromycin and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate. However, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Class IA Antiarrhythmics: (Major) Rilpivirine should be used cautiously with Class IA antiarrhythmics (disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine). Class IA antiarrhythmics are associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Clofazimine: (Major) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation when clofazimine is administered with rilpivirine. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes have been reported in patients receiving clofazimine in combination with QT prolonging medications. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Clomipramine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with clozapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Treatment with clozapine has been associated with QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), cardiac arrest, and sudden death.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of tenofovir may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1/1B3). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for all three transporters.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with promethazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Promethazine, a phenothiazine, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with promethazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Promethazine, a phenothiazine, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) Coadministration of conivaptan and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Conivaptan is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor. (Moderate) Coadministration of rilpivirine with conivaptan may result in increased plasma concentrations of rilpivirine, leading to an increase in rilpivirine-related adverse effects. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A substrate and conivaptan is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor.
    Crizotinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of crizotinib with rilpivirine due to the risk of QT prolongation; exposure to rilpivirine may also increase. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes. An interruption of therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary for crizotinib if QT prolongation occurs. Crizotinib is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor that has been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation; rilpivirine is also a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Cyclosporine therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended when administered concurrently with tenofovir alafenamide. Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as cyclosporine. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein. In addition, tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and the organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1 and 1B3); cyclosporine is an inhibitor of all three transporters. Inhibition of P-gp, BCRP, and OATP by cyclosporine may further increase tenofovir plasma concentrations. When tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Dabrafenib: (Major) The concomitant use of dabrafenib and rilpivirine may lead to decreased rilpivirine concentrations and loss of virologic response. Consider use of an alternative agent. If concomitant use of these agents is unavoidable, monitor patients for loss of rilpivirine efficacy. Dabrafenib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer and rilpivirine is a moderately sensitive CYP3A4 substrate.
    Daclatasvir: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with daclatasvir. Coadministration may result in increased tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and the organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1 and 1B3); daclatasvir is an inhibitor all three transporters. If these drugs are administered together, closely monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Danazol: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering danazol with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Danazol is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Darolutamide: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of darolutamide and tenofovir alafenamide due to the potential for increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide increasing the risk of adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and darolutamide is a BCRP inhibitor.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering the combination of darunavir and ritonavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Dosage adjustments are not recommended. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Darunavir and ritonavir are inhibitors of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering the combination of darunavir and ritonavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Dosage adjustments are not recommended. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Darunavir and ritonavir are inhibitors of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of tenofovir may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1/1B3). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for all three transporters.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering the combination of darunavir and ritonavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Dosage adjustments are not recommended. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Darunavir and ritonavir are inhibitors of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of tenofovir may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1/1B3). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for all three transporters.
    Dasatinib: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with dasatinib as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. In vitro studies have shown that dasatinib has the potential to prolong the QT interval.
    Degarelix: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy outweigh the potential risks in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., degarelix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Delavirdine: (Major) Coadministration of delavirdine and rilpivirine is not recommended. If they are coadministered, close clinical monitoring is advised due to the increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Delavirdine is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Desflurane: (Major) Halogenated anesthetics should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with rilpivirine. Halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Desipramine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with deutetrabenazine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Deutetrabenazine may prolong the QT interval, but the degree of QT prolongation is not clinically significant when deutetrabenazine is administered within the recommended dosage range.
    Dexamethasone: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of dexamethasone (more than 1 dose) and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Dexamethasone is an inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Dexlansoprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Rilpivirine should be used cautiously with Class IA antiarrhythmics (disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine). Class IA antiarrhythmics are associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Dichlorphenamide: (Major) Use of dichlorphenamide and tenofovir alafenamide is not recommended because of increased tenofovir exposure and a risk of tenofovir-related adverse effects. Monitor closely for signs of drug toxicity if coadministration cannot be avoided. For example, it is important to monitor renal and hepatic function for all patients during treatment with tenofovir, as the drug may cause hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Increased tenofovir exposure is possible. Tenofovir is a sensitive OAT1 substrate. Dichlorphenamide inhibits OAT1.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Didanosine, ddI: (Moderate) While no dosage adjustments are required, because didanosine, ddI is administered on an empty stomach and rilpivirine is given with food, do not give didanosine within at least two hours before or at least four hours after rilpivirine.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Diltiazem: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering diltiazem with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Diltiazem is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Disopyramide: (Major) Rilpivirine should be used cautiously with Class IA antiarrhythmics (disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine). Class IA antiarrhythmics are associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Coadministration of dofetilide and rilpivirine is not recommended as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Dofetilide, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. (Major) Dofetilide should be co-administered with tenofovir alafenamide with caution since both drugs are actively secreted via cationic secretion and could compete for common renal tubular transport systems. This results in a possible increase in plasma concentrations of either drug. Increased concentrations of dofetilide may increase the risk for side effects including proarrhythmia. Careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of dofetilide is recommended. (Moderate) Use caution when administering dofetilide concurrently with emtricitabine as both drugs are actively secreted via cationic secretion and could compete for common renal tubular transport systems. This results in a possible increase in plasma concentrations of either drug. Increased concentrations of dofetilide may increase the risk for side effects including proarrhythmia.
    Dolasetron: (Moderate) Administer dolasetron with caution in combination with rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Dolasetron has been associated with a dose-dependent prolongation in the QT, PR, and QRS intervals on an electrocardiogram.
    Dolutegravir; Lamivudine: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) Use donepezil with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Case reports indicate that QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) can occur during donepezil therapy. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Use donepezil with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Case reports indicate that QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) can occur during donepezil therapy. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Doravirine; Lamivudine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Doxepin: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Dronedarone: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of dronedarone and rilpivirine is contraindicated. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Dronedarone administration is associated with a dose-related increase in the QTc interval. The increase in QTc is approximately 10 milliseconds at doses of 400 mg twice daily (the FDA-approved dose) and up to 25 milliseconds at doses of 1600 mg twice daily. Although there are no studies examining the effects of dronedarone in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation.
    Droperidol: (Major) Droperidol should be administered with extreme caution to patients receiving other agents that may prolong the QT interval. Droperidol administration is associated with an established risk for QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Any drug known to have potential to prolong the QT interval should not be coadministered with droperidol. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with droperidol include rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Echinacea: (Moderate) Use Echinacea sp. with caution in patients taking medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Some experts have suggested that Echinacea's effects on the immune system might cause problems for patients with HIV infection, particularly with long-term use. There may be less risk with short-term use (less than 2 weeks). A few pharmacokinetic studies have shown reductions in blood levels of some antiretroviral medications when Echinacea was given, presumably due to CYP induction. However, more study is needed for various HIV treatment regimens. Of the agents studied, the interactions do not appear to be significant or to require dose adjustments at the time of use. Although no dose adjustments are required, monitoring drug concentrations may give reassurance during co-administration. Monitor viral load and other parameters carefully during therapy.
    Efavirenz: (Major) Coadministration of efavirenz and rilpivirine is not recommended as the combined use of two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. If they are coadministered, close clinical monitoring is advised due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Efavirenz is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response. In addition, both drugs have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Use of these drugs together may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Major) Coadministration of efavirenz and rilpivirine is not recommended as the combined use of two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. If they are coadministered, close clinical monitoring is advised due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Efavirenz is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response. In addition, both drugs have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Use of these drugs together may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP).
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Coadministration of efavirenz and rilpivirine is not recommended as the combined use of two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. If they are coadministered, close clinical monitoring is advised due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Efavirenz is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response. In addition, both drugs have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Use of these drugs together may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Elagolix: (Major) The concomitant use of elagolix and rilpivirine may lead to decreased rilpivirine concentrations and loss of virologic response. Consider use of an alternative agent. If concomitant use of these agents is unavoidable, monitor patients for loss of rilpivirine efficacy. Elagolix is a weak to moderate CYP3A4 inducer and rilpivirine is a moderately sensitive CYP3A4 substrate.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Major) The concomitant use of elagolix and rilpivirine may lead to decreased rilpivirine concentrations and loss of virologic response. Consider use of an alternative agent. If concomitant use of these agents is unavoidable, monitor patients for loss of rilpivirine efficacy. Elagolix is a weak to moderate CYP3A4 inducer and rilpivirine is a moderately sensitive CYP3A4 substrate.
    Elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor: (Moderate) Monitor for tenofovir alafenamide-related adverse reactions during coadministration of elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor as concurrent use may increase exposure of tenofovir alafenamide. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for the transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3; elexacaftor; tezacaftor; ivacaftor may inhibit uptake of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. (Minor) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and tenofovir alafenamide concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Concurrent use can increase tenofovir exposure leading to adverse events. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Eliglustat: (Major) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide and eliglustat may result in increased concentrations of tenofovir. Monitor patients closely for tenofovir-related adverse effects including nausea, diarrhea, headache, asthenia, and nephrotoxicity. Tenofovir is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; eliglustat is a P-gp inhibitor. For coadministration with P-gp substrates, eliglustat's product labeling recommends monitoring therapeutic drug concentrations of the P-gp substrate, if possible, or consideration of a dosage reduction and titrating to clinical effect. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor. (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with eliglustat as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Eliglustat is predicted to cause PR, QRS, and/or QT prolongation at significantly elevated plasma concentrations.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of tenofovir may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1/1B3). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for all three transporters.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of rilpivirine may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of tenofovir may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transport protein (OATP1B1/1B3). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for all three transporters.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with felodipine, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as felodipine, may increase absorption of tenofovir alafenamide, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Enasidenib: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with enasidenib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp and BCRP substrate and enasidenib is a P-gp and BCRP inhibitor.
    Encorafenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of encorafenib and rilpivirine due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. If concurrent use cannot be avoided, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia prior to treatment. Encorafenib is associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Enflurane: (Major) Halogenated anesthetics should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with rilpivirine. Halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Entrectinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of entrectinib with rilpivirine due to the risk of QT prolongation. Entrectinib has been associated with QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Enzalutamide: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of enzalutamide and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Enzalutamide is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Eribulin: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as eribulin. ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation.
    Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering erythromycin with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events, including QT prolongation. When possible, alternative antibiotics should be considered. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Erythromycin is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Also, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as erythromycin. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring for adverse events is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with erythromycin. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. When possible, an alternative antibiotic such as azithromycin should be considered. Erythromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering erythromycin with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events, including QT prolongation. When possible, alternative antibiotics should be considered. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Erythromycin is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Also, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as erythromycin. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring for adverse events is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with erythromycin. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. When possible, an alternative antibiotic such as azithromycin should be considered. Erythromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Eslicarbazepine: (Contraindicated) In vivo studies suggest eslicarbazepine is an inducer of CYP3A4. CYP3A4 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. The related anticonvulsants, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are contraindicated in combination with rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. Although not specifically mentioned by the manufacturer of rilpivirine, it may be prudent to avoid coadministration of eslicarbazepine and rilpivirine given the potential for an interaction based on the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs.
    Esomeprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering tenofovir alafenamide with norgestimate. Concurrent use may result in elevated norgestimate serum concentrations. Risk associated with these altered concentrations may include increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, acne, and venous thrombosis. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Etravirine: (Major) Coadministration of etravirine and rilpivirine is not recommended as the combined use of two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. If they are coadministered, close clinical monitoring is advised due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Etravirine is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with ezogabine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Ezogabine has been associated with QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Famotidine: (Moderate) Coadministration with famotidine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of famotidine for at least 12 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Coadministration with famotidine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of famotidine for at least 12 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Fedratinib: (Moderate) Monitor for increased rilpivirine adverse effects if administered with fedratinib. Coadministration may increase rilpivirine exposure. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate; fedratinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Felodipine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with felodipine, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as felodipine, may increase absorption of tenofovir alafenamide, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Fingolimod: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering fingolimod concomitantly with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Fingolimod initiation results in decreased heart rate and may prolong the QT interval. Fingolimod has not been studied in patients treated with drugs that prolong the QT interval, but drugs that prolong the QT interval have been associated with cases of TdP in patients with bradycardia. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Flecainide: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with flecinide. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Flecainide, a Class IC antiarrhythmic, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or TdP; flecainide increases the QT interval, but largely due to prolongation of the QRS interval. Although causality for TdP has not been established for flecainide, patients receiving concurrent drugs which have the potential for QT prolongation may have an increased risk of developing proarrhythmias.
    Flibanserin: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with flibanserin, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as flibanserin, may increase absorption of tenofovir alafenamide, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Fluconazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of fluconazole and rilpivirine is contraindicated due to the risk of life threatening arrhythmias such as torsade de pointes (TdP). Fluconazole is an inhibitor of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. These drugs used in combination may result in elevated rilpivirine plasma concentrations, causing an increased risk for adverse events, such as QT prolongation. Additionally, fluconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval; do not use with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval and are metabolized through CYP3A4, such as rilpivirine.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Use fluoxetine and rilpivirine together with caution due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation and TdP have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with fluphenazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Fluphenazine is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, fluphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Flutamide: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering flutamide with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Flutamide is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Fluvoxamine: (Major) There may be an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) during concurrent use of fluvoxamine and rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Cases of QT prolongation and TdP have been reported during postmarketing use of fluvoxamine. In addition, fluvoxamine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Food: (Moderate) The pharmacokinetic parameters of anti-retroviral medications (anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors) metabolized through the CYP isoenzyme system are slightly altered by smoked and oral marijuana. Despite this interaction, marijuana is not expected to adversely affect anti-retroviral efficacy. However, the incidence of marijuana associated adverse effects may change following coadministration with anti-retroviral drugs. Many anti-retrovirals are inhibitors of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of marijuana's most psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC). When given concurrently with anti-retrovirals, the amount of Delta-9-THC converted to the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) may be reduced. These changes in Delta-9-THC and 11-OH-THC plasma concentrations may result in an altered marijuana adverse event profile. (Moderate) The pharmacokinetic parameters of anti-retroviral medications (anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), anti-retroviral nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors) metabolized through the CYP isoenzyme system are slightly altered by smoked and oral marijuana. Despite this interaction, marijuana is not expected to adversely affect anti-retroviral efficacy. However, the incidence of marijuana associated adverse effects may change following coadministration with anti-retroviral drugs. Many anti-retrovirals are inhibitors of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of marijuana's most psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC). When given concurrently with anti-retrovirals, the amount of Delta-9-THC converted to the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) may be reduced. These changes in Delta-9-THC and 11-OH-THC plasma concentrations may result in an altered marijuana adverse event profile.
    Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering fosamprenavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of fosamprenavir and rilpivirine. Fosamprenavir is an inhibitor and inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Foscarnet: (Major) When possible, avoid concurrent use of foscarnet with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine. Foscarnet has been associated with postmarketing reports of both QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. If these drugs are administered together, obtain an electrocardiogram and electrolyte concentrations before and periodically during treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as foscarnet. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and foscarnet are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as foscarnet. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Fosphenytoin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of phenytoin or fosphenytoin and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Phenytoin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with fosphenytoin is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for tenofovir toxicities that may require tenofovir alafenamide dose reduction if given concurrently with fostamatinib. Concomitant use of fostamatinib with a BCRP or P-gp substrate may increase the concentration of the BCRP or P-gp substrate. Fostamatinib is a P-gp inhibitor, and the active metabolite of fostamatinib, R406, is a BCRP inhibitor; tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for BCRP and P-gp. Coadministration of fostamatinib with another BCRP substrate increased the substrate AUC by 95% and Cmax by 88%. Coadministration of fostamatinib with another P-gp substrate increased the substrate AUC by 37% and Cmax by 70%.
    Fostemsavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with fostemsavir due to the potential for QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of fostemsavir (2,400 mg twice daily, four times the recommended daily dose) have been shown to cause QT prolongation. Fostemsavir causes dose-dependent QT prolongation. (Moderate) Concomitant use of tenofovir alafenamide with fostemsavir may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a BCRP substrate and fostemsavir is a BCRP inhibitor.
    Gadobutrol: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Gadoversetamide: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Ganciclovir: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as ganciclovir. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and ganciclovir are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir, with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as ganciclovir. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Gemifloxacin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with gemifloxacin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Gemifloxacin may prolong the QT interval in some patients. The maximal change in the QTc interval occurs approximately 5 to 10 hours following oral administration of gemifloxacin. The likelihood of QTc prolongation may increase with increasing dose of the drug; therefore, the recommended dose should not be exceeded especially in patients with renal or hepatic impairment where the Cmax and AUC are slightly higher.
    Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin: (Moderate) Use gemtuzumab ozogamicin and rilpivirine together with caution due to the potential for additive QT interval prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). If these agents are used together, obtain an ECG and serum electrolytes prior to the start of gemtuzumab and as needed during treatment. Although QT interval prolongation has not been reported with gemtuzumab, it has been reported with other drugs that contain calicheamicin. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Gentamicin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Gilteritinib: (Moderate) Use caution and monitor for additive QT prolongation if concurrent use of gilteritinib and rilpivirine is necessary. Gilteritinib has been associated with QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Glasdegib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of glasdegib with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of QT prolongation with increased frequency of ECG monitoring. Glasdegib therapy may result in QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of glecaprevir and tenofovir alafenamide as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide and increase the risk of adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/3, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); glecaprevir is an inhibitor of all these drug transporters. (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of pibrentasvir and tenofovir alafenamide as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide and increase the risk of adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/3, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); pibrentasvir is an inhibitor of all these drug transporters.
    Glipizide; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Glyburide; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Goserelin: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., goserelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Granisetron: (Moderate) Use granisetron with caution in combination with rilpivirine due to the risk of QT prolongation. Granisetron has been associated with QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Grapefruit juice: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir, PMPA, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, concurrently with inhibitors of P-gp, such as grapefruit juice. Coadministration may result in increased absorption of tenofovir. Monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering grapefruit juice with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Grapefruit juice is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Halofantrine: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as halofantrine. In addition to avoiding drug interactions, the potential for Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be reduced by avoiding the use of QT prolonging drugs in patients at substantial risk for TdP.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Major) Halogenated anesthetics should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with rilpivirine. Halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with haloperidol as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been observed during haloperidol treatment. Excessive doses (particularly in the overdose setting) or IV administration of haloperidol may be associated with a higher risk of QT prolongation.
    Halothane: (Major) Halogenated anesthetics should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with rilpivirine. Halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Histrelin: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., histrelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of rilpivirine and hydroxychloroquine due to an increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Hydroxychloroquine prolongs the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Caution is recommended if hydroxyzine is administered with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Postmarketing data indicate that hydroxyzine causes QT prolongation and TdP. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Ibutilide: (Major) Ibutilide administration can cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP); proarrhythmic events should be anticipated. The potential for proarrhythmic events with ibutilide increases with the coadministration of other drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Idelalisib: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with rilpivirine, a CYP3A substrate, as rilpivirine toxicities may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib.
    Iloperidone: (Major) Iloperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; however, torsade de pointes (TdP) has not been reported. According to the manufacturer, since iloperidone may prolong the QT interval, it should be avoided in combination with other agents also known to have this effect, such as rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering imatinib, STI-571 with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Imatinib is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Imipramine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Indacaterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Indacaterol; Glycopyrrolate: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering indinavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Indinavir is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of inotuzumab ozogamicin with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). If coadministration is unavoidable, obtain an ECG and serum electrolytes prior to the start of treatment, after treatment initiation, and periodically during treatment. Inotuzumab has been associated with QT interval prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Interferon Alfa-2a: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Alfa-2b: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Alfa-2b; Ribavirin: (Major) The concomitant use of ribavirin and anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) should be done with caution as both can cause hepatic damage. NNRTIs may cause liver damage in the context of hypersensitivity reactions or by direct toxic effects. Many studies demonstrate that nevirapine is more hepatotoxic than efavirenz. Underlying chronic HCV infection enhances the risk of developing liver enzyme elevations in patients receiving nevirapine. Overall, the HCV-HIV International Panel recommends the management of hepatotoxicity should be based on the knowledge of the mechanisms involved for each drug. Furthermore, they state that there are lower rates of liver-related mortality in coinfected patients taking HAART, even in those with end-stage liver disease, compared with patients not receiving HAART. Closely monitor patients for treatment-associated toxicities, especially hepatic decompensation. (Moderate) Use emtricitabine with ribavirin and interferon with caution and closely monitor for hepatic decompensation and anemia. Dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon, ribavirin, or both should be considered if worsening clinical toxicities are observed, including hepatic decompensation (e.g., Child-Pugh greater than 6). Hepatic decompensation (some fatal) has occurred in HCV/HIV coinfected patients who received both ribavirin/interferon and anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) therapies. (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Alfacon-1: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Alfa-n3: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Beta-1a: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Beta-1b: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferon Gamma-1b: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Interferons: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving NRTIs and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART. (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Ipratropium; Albuterol: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with rilpivirine may result in increased serum concentrations of rilpivirine. Rilpivirine is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together. (Minor) Close clinical monitoring for adverse events is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with isavuconazonium. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Isavuconazonium is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Halogenated anesthetics should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with rilpivirine. Halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of rifampin and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Rifampin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with rifampin is not recommended. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of rifampin and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Rifampin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with rifampin is not recommended. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering itraconazole with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive effects on the QT interval, increased exposure to rilpivirine, and decreased exposure to itraconazole. Monitor for breakthrough fungal infections in patients receiving rilpivirine with an azole antifungal. Rilpivirine, a CYP3A4 substrate, and itraconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, are both associated with QT prolongation; rilpivirine dosage adjustments are not recommended. In addition, concurrent use of rilpivirine decreased exposure to another azole antifungal. A similar interaction may occur with itraconazole.
    Ivacaftor: (Minor) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and tenofovir alafenamide concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Concurrent use can increase tenofovir exposure leading to adverse events. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Ivosidenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ivosidenib with rilpivirine due to an increased risk of QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor ECGs for QTc prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct any electrolyte abnormalities as clinically appropriate. An interruption of therapy and dose reduction of ivosidenib may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Prolongation of the QTc interval and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients treated with ivosidenib. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Kanamycin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Ketoconazole: (Major) Caution is advised when administering ketoconazole with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive effects on the QT interval and increased exposure to rilpivirine. Both rilpivirine and ketoconazole are associated with QT prolongation; coadministration may increase this risk. In addition, coadministration of ketoconazole (a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor) with rilpivirine (a CYP3A4 substrate) results in elevated rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Conversely, ketoconazole concentrations are decreased when administered with rilpivirine. If these drugs must be administered together, closely monitor for rilpivirine-related adverse events and the potential for breakthrough fungal infections. Rilpivirine dosage adjustments are not recommended. (Minor) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected during coadministration of ketoconazole and tenofovir alafenamide; however based on the metabolic pathways of these medications, monitoring for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions should be considered if these drugs are given together. Ketoconazole is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Lamivudine, 3TC: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Lamivudine, 3TC; Zidovudine, ZDV: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Do not coadminister lamivudine, 3TC-containing products and emtricitabine-containing products due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine.
    Lansoprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering clarithromycin with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. When possible, alternative antibiotics should be considered. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Also, supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as clarithromycin. (Moderate) Coadministration of clarithromycin and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate. However, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of QT prolongation if lapatinib is administered with rilpivirine. Lapatinib has been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation; ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported in postmarketing experience with lapatinib. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Ledipasvir; Sofosbuvir: (Minor) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected during coadministration of ledipasvir; sofosbuvir and tenofovir alafenamide; however based on the metabolic pathways of these medications, monitoring for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions should be considered if these drugs are given together. Tenofovir is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); ledipasvir is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP. Use of these drugs together may increase tenofovir plasma concentrations. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Lefamulin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lefamulin with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor ECG during treatment. Lefamulin has a concentration dependent QTc prolongation effect. The pharmacodynamic interaction potential to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram between lefamulin and other drugs that effect cardiac conduction is unknown. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Lenvatinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lenvatinib with rilpivirine due to the risk of QT prolongation. Prolongation of the QT interval has been reported with lenvatinib therapy. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of rilpivirine; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of rilpivirine; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Letermovir: (Moderate) A clinically relevant increase in the plasma concentration of rilpivirine may occur if given with letermovir. In patients who are also receiving treatment with cyclosporine, the magnitude of this interaction may be amplified. Rilpivirine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Letermovir is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor; however, when given with cyclosporine, the combined effect on CYP3A4 substrates may be similar to a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Leuprolide: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., leuprolide) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., leuprolide) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Levalbuterol: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Levofloxacin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with levofloxacin. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Levofloxacin has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Although extremely rare, TdP has been reported during postmarketing surveillance of levofloxacin.
    Levomethadyl: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as levomethadyl. In addition to avoiding drug interactions, the potential for Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be reduced by avoiding the use of QT prolonging drugs in patients at substantial risk for TdP.
    Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with lithium as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Lithium has also been associated with QT prolongation.
    Lofexidine: (Major) Monitor ECG if lofexidine is coadministered with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. Lofexidine prolongs the QT interval. In addition, there are postmarketing reports of torsade de pointes. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Lonafarnib: (Moderate) Coadministration of rilpivirine with lonafarnib may result in increased plasma concentrations of rilpivirine, leading to an increase in rilpivirine-related adverse effects. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and lonafarnib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with lonafarnib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate and lonafarnib is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Long-acting beta-agonists: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with loperamide as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. At high doses, loperamide has been associated with serious cardiac toxicities, including syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), and cardiac arrest.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with loperamide as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. At high doses, loperamide has been associated with serious cardiac toxicities, including syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), and cardiac arrest.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lopinavir with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain a baseline ECG to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Lopinavir is associated with QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. (Moderate) Concurrent use of lopinavir with tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir serum concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for the drug transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1/1B3); lopinavir is an OATP1B1 inhibitor. When 10 mg of tenofovir alafenamide was administered daily with lopinavir; ritonavir (800 mg/200 mg PO daily), the tenofovir Cmax and AUC increased by 2.19-fold and 1.47-fold, respectively. Monitor for increased toxicities if these drugs are given together.
    Lorlatinib: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering lorlatinib with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer and rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of lumacaftor; ivacaftor and rilpivirine is contraindicated, as significant decreases in rilpivirine plasma concentrations may occur. This may result in loss of virologic response and possible resistance to rilpivirine or to the class of NNRTIs. Rilpivirine is primarily metabolize by CYP3A, and lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer. (Moderate) Concomitant use of lumacaftor; ivacaftor and tenofovir alafenamide could potentially alter the systemic exposure of tenofovir. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor has the potential to both induce and inhibit P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor. (Minor) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and tenofovir alafenamide concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Concurrent use can increase tenofovir exposure leading to adverse events. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of lumacaftor; ivacaftor and rilpivirine is contraindicated, as significant decreases in rilpivirine plasma concentrations may occur. This may result in loss of virologic response and possible resistance to rilpivirine or to the class of NNRTIs. Rilpivirine is primarily metabolize by CYP3A, and lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer. (Moderate) Concomitant use of lumacaftor; ivacaftor and tenofovir alafenamide could potentially alter the systemic exposure of tenofovir. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In vitro data suggest that lumacaftor; ivacaftor has the potential to both induce and inhibit P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid concurrent administration of macimorelin with drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine. Use of these drugs together may increase the risk of developing torsade de pointes-type ventricular tachycardia. Sufficient washout time of drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval prior to administration of macimorelin is recommended. Treatment with macimorelin has been associated with an increase in the corrected QT (QTc) interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with maprotiline as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Maprotiline has also been reported to prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Cases of long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes (TdP) tachycardia have been described with maprotiline use, but rarely occur when the drug is used alone in normal prescribed doses and in the absence of other known risk factors for QT prolongation. Limited data are available regarding the safety of maprotiline in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Mefloquine: (Moderate) Mefloquine should be used with caution in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. There is evidence that the use of halofantrine after mefloquine causes a significant lengthening of the QTc interval. Mefloquine alone has not been reported to cause QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with promethazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Promethazine, a phenothiazine, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Mephobarbital: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Mesoridazine: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval, such as mesoridazine. In addition to avoiding drug interactions, the potential for Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be reduced by avoiding the use of QT prolonging drugs in patients at substantial risk for TdP.
    Metaproterenol: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Repaglinide: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Methadone: (Major) Close clinical monitoring is advised with coadministration. Use of these drugs together may cause the plasma concentration of methadone to decrease, thereby resulting in decreased methadone efficacy. No dose adjustments are required when initiating concurrent treatment; however, the maintenance dose of methadone may need to be adjusted in some patients. In addition, due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with methadone. A careful assessment of treatment risks versus benefits should be conducted prior to coadministration. When initiating concurrent treatment no dose adjustments are required; however, the dose of methadone may need to be adjusted during maintenance therapy. Methadone is considered to be associated with an increased risk for QT prolongation and TdP, especially at higher doses (> 200 mg/day but averaging approximately 400 mg/day in adult patients). Laboratory studies, both in vivo and in vitro, have demonstrated that methadone inhibits cardiac potassium channels and prolongs the QT interval. Most cases involve patients being treated for pain with large, multiple daily doses of methadone, although cases have been reported in patients receiving doses commonly used for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also been associated with prolongation of the QT interval.
    Methohexital: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Metronidazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Midostaurin: (Major) The concomitant use of midostaurin and rilpivirine may lead to additive QT interval prolongation. If these drugs are used together, consider electrocardiogram monitoring. In clinical trials, QT prolongation has been reported in patients who received midostaurin as single-agent therapy or in combination with cytarabine and daunorubicin. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Mifepristone: (Major) Avoid use together if possible due to the risk of elevated rilpivirine exposure and a combined risk for QT prolongation. Consider alternatives to rilpivirine when coadministered with a drug with a known risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), such as mifepristone when it is used for chronic hormonal conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome. Mifepristone is an inhibitor of CYP3A4; rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration is likely to increase rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Monitor for rilpivirine-related side effects, including rash, mood changes or depression, fast, irregular heart rate, and hepatotoxicity. To minimize the risk of QT prolongation, the lowest effect dose of mifepristone should always be used. (Moderate) Coadministration of mifepristone and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Mifepristone is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with mirtazapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Mirtazapine has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Torsade de pointes (TdP) has been reported postmarketing, primarily in overdose or in patients with other risk factors for QT prolongation.
    Mitotane: (Major) Concomitant use of mitotane with rilpivirine should be undertaken with caution due to potential decreased rilpivirine concentrations, leading to a reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and the potential development of viral resistance. The use of rilpivirine is contraindicated with other specific strong CYP3A inducers, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin, rifapentine, and St John's wort. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Mobocertinib: (Major) Concomitant use of mobocertinib and rilpivirine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at 3 times the maximum recommended dose.
    Modafinil: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering modafinil with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Modafinil is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Moxifloxacin: (Major) Concurrent use of rilpivirine and moxifloxacin should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Moxifloxacin has also been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Additionally, post-marketing surveillance has identified very rare cases of ventricular arrhythmias including TdP, usually in patients with severe underlying proarrhythmic conditions. The likelihood of QT prolongation may increase with increasing concentrations of moxifloxacin, therefore the recommended dose or infusion rate should not be exceeded.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Nafcillin: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering nafcillin with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Nafcillin is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Naproxen; Esomeprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering nefazodone with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Nefazodone is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering nelfinavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Nelfinavir is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Neratinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with neratinib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and neratinib is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Nevirapine: (Major) Coadministration of nevirapine and rilpivirine is not recommended as the combined use of two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. If they are coadministered, close clinical monitoring is advised due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Nevirapine is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Nicardipine: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering nicardipine with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Nicardipine is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Nilotinib: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of nilotinib with other agents that prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine. Nilotinib is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and rilpivirine is a substrate of CYP3A4; administering these drugs together may result in increased rilpivirine levels. If the use of rilpivirine is necessary, hold nilotinib therapy. If these drugs are used together, consider a rilpivirine dose reduction and monitor patients for toxicity (e.g., QT interval prolongation).
    Nitisinone: (Moderate) Monitor for increased tenofovir-related adverse effects if coadministered with nitisinone. Increased tenofovir exposure is possible. Nitisinone inhibits OAT1. Tenofovir is an OAT1 substrate.
    Nizatidine: (Moderate) Coadministration with nizatidine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of nizatidine for at least 12 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Non-Ionic Contrast Media: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as radiopaque contrast agents. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Norfloxacin: (Major) Due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with norfloxacin. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Quinolones have also been associated with QT prolongation and TdP. For norfloxacin specifically, extremely rare cases of TdP were reported during post-marketing surveillance. These reports generally involved patients with concurrent medical conditions or concomitant medications that may have been contributory.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering tenofovir alafenamide with norgestimate. Concurrent use may result in elevated norgestimate serum concentrations. Risk associated with these altered concentrations may include increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, acne, and venous thrombosis. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS.
    Nortriptyline: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Obeticholic Acid: (Minor) Obeticholic acid may increase the exposure to tenofovir alafenamide. Tenofavir alafenamide is a substrate of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and obeticholic acid inhibits OAT1B1 and OATP1B3 in vitro. Caution and close monitoring is advised if obeticholic acid is coadministered with tenofovir alafenamide.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Use octreotide with caution in combination with rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Arrhythmias, sinus bradycardia, and conduction disturbances have occurred during octreotide therapy. Since bradycardia is a risk factor for development of torsade de pointes (TdP), the potential occurrence of bradycardia during octreotide administration could theoretically increase the risk of TdP in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval.
    Ofloxacin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with ofloxacin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Quinolones have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Although extremely rare, TdP has been reported during postmarketing surveillance of ofloxacin. These reports generally involved patients with concurrent medical conditions or concomitant medications that may have been contributory.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with olanzapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may also be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with olanzapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may also be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval. (Moderate) Use fluoxetine and rilpivirine together with caution due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation and TdP have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with olanzapine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may also be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval.
    Olodaterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Omeprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administration of rifabutin with rilpivirine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations; therefore, if these drugs are given concurrently, an additional dose of rilpivirine (25 mg PO once daily) is required and the drugs should be administered with a meal. Rifabutin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Use of these drugs together may result in HIV treatment failure or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. (Major) Coadministration is not recommended. Concurrent use may result in significant decreases in the plasma concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide, leading to a reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and the potential development of viral resistance.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Ondansetron: (Major) Due to a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), ondansetron and rilpivirine should be used together cautiously. Ondansetron has been associated with QT prolongation and post-marketing reports of TdP. Among 42 patients receiving a 4 mg bolus dose of intravenous ondansetron for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting, the mean maximal QTc interval prolongation was 20 +/- 13 msec at the third minute after antiemetic administration (p < 0.0001). If ondansetron and another drug that prolongs the QT interval must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Oritavancin: (Major) Rilpivirine is metabolized by CYP3A4; oritavancin is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of rilpivirine may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Orlistat: (Major) According to the manufacturer of orlistat, HIV RNA levels should be frequently monitored in patients receiving orlistat while being treated for HIV infection with tenofovir, PMPA. Loss of virological control has been reported in HIV-infected patients taking orlistat with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine; efavirenz; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The exact mechanism for this interaction is not known, but may involve inhibition of systemic absorption of the anti-retroviral agent. If an increased HIV viral load is confirmed, orlistat should be discontinued. (Moderate) According to the manufacturer of orlistat, HIV RNA levels should be frequently monitored in patients receiving orlistat while being treated for HIV infection with anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Loss of virological control has been reported in HIV-infected patients taking orlistat with atazanavir, ritonavir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, lopinavir; ritonavir, and emtricitabine; efavirenz; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The exact mechanism for this interaction is not known, but may involve inhibition of systemic absorption of the anti-retroviral agent. If an increased HIV viral load is confirmed, orlistat should be discontinued.
    Osilodrostat: (Moderate) Monitor ECGs in patients receiving osilodrostat with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Osilodrostat is associated with dose-dependent QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Osimertinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of rilpivirine with osimertinib if possible due to the risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If concomitant use is unavoidable, periodically monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; an interruption of osimertinib therapy with dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Concentration-dependent QTc prolongation occurred during clinical trials of osimertinib. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation. (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir-related adverse reactions if coadministration with osimertinib is necessary. Concomitant use may result in increased tenofovir absorption. Tenofovir alafenamide is a BCRP and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Osimertinib is a BCRP and P-gp inhibitor.
    Oxaliplatin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of oxaliplatin with tenofovir alafenamide due to the risk of increased oxaliplatin-related adverse reactions. Tenofovir alafenamide is known to be potentially nephrotoxic; because platinum-containing drugs like oxaliplatin are eliminated primarily through the kidney, oxaliplatin clearance may be decreased by coadministration with nephrotoxic agents. (Major) Monitor electrolytes and ECGs for QT prolongation if coadministration of rilpivirine with oxaliplatin is necessary; correct electrolyte abnormalities prior to administration of oxaliplatin. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg per day) have caused QT prolongation. QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including fatal torsade de pointes have also been reported with oxaliplatin use in postmarketing experience.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Oxcarbazepine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of oxcarbazepine and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Oxcarbazepine is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with oxcarbazepine is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Ozanimod: (Major) In general, do not initiate ozanimod in patients taking rilpivirine due to the risk of additive bradycardia, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes (TdP). If treatment initiation is considered, seek advice from a cardiologist. Ozanimod initiation may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays. Ozanimod has not been studied in patients taking concurrent QT prolonging drugs; however, QT prolonging drugs have been associated with TdP in patients with bradycardia. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Paliperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; torsade de pointes (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation have been reported in the setting of overdose. According to the manufacturer, since paliperidone may prolong the QT interval, it should be avoided in combination with other agents also known to have this effect, such as rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. If coadministration is necessary and the patient has known risk factors for cardiac disease or arrhythmias, close monitoring is essential.
    Pamidronate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as pamidronate. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Panobinostat: (Major) The co-administration of panobinostat with rilpivirine or emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir is not recommended; QT prolongation has been reported with panobinostat and rilpivirine. Obtain an electrocardiogram at baseline and periodically during treatment. Hold panobinostat if the QTcF increases to >= 480 milliseconds during therapy; permanently discontinue if QT prolongation does not resolve.
    Pantoprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Paromomycin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Use caution when using pasireotide in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation has occurred with pasireotide at therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Pazopanib: (Major) Concurrent use of pazopanib and rilpivirine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If these drugs must be continued, closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Pazopanib has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation. In addition, pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and rilpivirine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of rilpivirine.
    Peginterferon Alfa-2a: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Peginterferon Alfa-2b: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Peginterferon beta-1a: (Moderate) Use together with caution and monitor for hepatic decompensation. Interferons and rilpivirine can both cause hepatotoxicity. Patients with chronic, cirrhotic HCV co-infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral agents and alpha interferons appear to be at increased risk for hepatic decompensation (e.g., Childs-Pugh score 6 or more) compared to patients not receiving HAART.
    Pentamidine: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with pentamidine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Pentamidine has also been associated with QT prolongation.
    Pentobarbital: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with perphenazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Perphenazine is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, perphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with perphenazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Perphenazine is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, perphenazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation. (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Pexidartinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of rilpivirine with pexidartinib may result in decreased plasma concentrations of rilpivirine, leading to a reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and the potential development of viral resistance. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and pexidartinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Phenobarbital: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of phenobarbital and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Phenobarbital is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with phenobarbital is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of phenobarbital and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Phenobarbital is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with phenobarbital is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering topiramate with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Topiramate is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Phenytoin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of phenytoin or fosphenytoin and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Phenytoin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with phenytoin is not recommended. Consider use of an alternative anticonvulsant. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Pimavanserin: (Major) Pimavanserin may cause QT prolongation and should generally be avoided in patients receiving other medications known to prolong the QT interval, such as rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Coadministration may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Pimozide: (Contraindicated) Pimozide is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) and coadministration with other drugs associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP, such as rilpivirine, should be avoided.
    Pioglitazone; Metformin: (Moderate) According to the manufacturer, interactions are not expected when metformin is administered with tenofovir alafenamide; however, because tenofovir and metformin can compete for elimination through the kidneys, use of these medications together may increase the risk for side effects, such as lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as tenofovir alafenamide, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended. (Moderate) Certain medications used concomitantly with metformin may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as emtricitabine, may decrease metformin elimination by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Although such interactions remain theoretical, careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of metformin and/or the interfering cationic drug are recommended.
    Pirbuterol: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Pirfenidone: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring for adverse events is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with pirfenidone. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Pirfenidone is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Pitolisant: (Major) Avoid coadministration of pitolisant with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Pitolisant prolongs the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Plazomicin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Polymyxin B: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as polymyxin B. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Polymyxins: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as colistimethate sodium. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Ponesimod: (Major) In general, do not initiate ponesimod in patients taking rilpivirine due to the risk of additive bradycardia, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes (TdP). If treatment initiation is considered, seek advice from a cardiologist. Ponesimod initiation may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays. Ponesimod has not been studied in patients taking concurrent QT prolonging drugs; however, QT prolonging drugs have been associated with TdP in patients with bradycardia. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Posaconazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of posaconazole and rilpivirine is contraindicated due to the risk of life threatening arrhythmias such as torsade de pointes (TdP). Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of ripivirine. These drugs used in combination may result in elevated rilpivirine plasma concentrations, causing an increased risk for rilpivirine-related adverse events, such as QT prolongation. Additionally, posaconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval as well as rare cases of TdP; avoid use with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval and are metabolized through CYP3A4, such as rilpivirine. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring adverse events are advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with posaconazole. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Posaconazole is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Primaquine: (Moderate) Exercise caution when administering primaquine in combination with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Primaquine is associated with QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Primidone: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering primidone with tenofovir alafenamide due to the potential for treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. Primidone is an inducer of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Coadministration may result in decreased tenofovir serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Probenecid: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as probenecid. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Probenecid; Colchicine: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as probenecid. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Procainamide: (Major) Rilpivirine should be used cautiously with Class IA antiarrhythmics (disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine). Class IA antiarrhythmics are associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with prochlorperazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Prochlorperazine is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, prochlorperazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with promethazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Promethazine, a phenothiazine, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with promethazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Promethazine, a phenothiazine, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with promethazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Promethazine, a phenothiazine, is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation.
    Propafenone: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with propafenone. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Propafenone, a Class IC antiarrhythmic, also increases the QT interval, but largely due to prolongation of the QRS interval.
    Proton pump inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Protriptyline: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Quetiapine: (Major) Concurrent use of quetiapine and rilpivirine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that quetiapine may also be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances.
    Quinidine: (Major) Rilpivirine should be used cautiously with Class IA antiarrhythmics (disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine). Class IA antiarrhythmics are associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Quinine: (Major) Concurrent use of quinine and rilpivirine should be avoided due to an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Quinine has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval and rare cases of TdP. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation. In addition, concentrations of rilpivirine may be increased with concomitant use of quinine. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and quinine is a CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Rabeprazole: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of proton pump inhibitors and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit secretion of gastric acid by proton pumps thereby increasing the gastric pH; for optimal absorption, rilpivirine requires an acidic environment. Coadministration of a proton pump inhibitor and rilpivirine may result in decreased rilpivirine absorption/serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine.
    Ranitidine: (Moderate) Coadministration with ranitidine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of ranitidine for at least 12 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with ranolazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation; rilpivirine exposure may also increase. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate; supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Ranolazine is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor that is associated with dose- and plasma concentration-related increases in the QTc interval. Although there are no studies examining the effects of ranolazine in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs concurrent use may result in additive QT prolongation. (Minor) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering ranolazine with tenofovir alafenamide due to an increased potential for adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of these drugs. Ranolazine is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Coadministration may result in increased tenofovir plasma concentrations. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Regorafenib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of regorafenib with tenofovir alafenamide is necessary, and monitor for an increase in tenofovir alafenamide-related adverse reactions. Tenofovir alafenamide is a BCRP substrate and regorafenib is a BCRP inhibitor. Regorafenib-mediated BCRP inhibition may increase exposure to tenofovir alafenamide. However, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered in combination with cobicistat, other inhibitors of BCRP are not expected to further increase tenofovir alafenamide concentrations.
    Relugolix: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with relugolix. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., relugolix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with relugolix. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., relugolix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Ribavirin: (Major) The concomitant use of ribavirin and anti-retroviral non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) should be done with caution as both can cause hepatic damage. NNRTIs may cause liver damage in the context of hypersensitivity reactions or by direct toxic effects. Many studies demonstrate that nevirapine is more hepatotoxic than efavirenz. Underlying chronic HCV infection enhances the risk of developing liver enzyme elevations in patients receiving nevirapine. Overall, the HCV-HIV International Panel recommends the management of hepatotoxicity should be based on the knowledge of the mechanisms involved for each drug. Furthermore, they state that there are lower rates of liver-related mortality in coinfected patients taking HAART, even in those with end-stage liver disease, compared with patients not receiving HAART. Closely monitor patients for treatment-associated toxicities, especially hepatic decompensation. (Moderate) Use emtricitabine with ribavirin and interferon with caution and closely monitor for hepatic decompensation and anemia. Dose reduction or discontinuation of interferon, ribavirin, or both should be considered if worsening clinical toxicities are observed, including hepatic decompensation (e.g., Child-Pugh greater than 6). Hepatic decompensation (some fatal) has occurred in HCV/HIV coinfected patients who received both ribavirin/interferon and anti-retroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) therapies.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ribociclib with rilpivirine due to an increased risk for QT prolongation. Systemic exposure of rilpivirine may also be increased resulting in increase in treatment-related adverse reactions. Ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor that has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg per day), a CYP3A4 substrate, have also caused QT prolongation. Concomitant use may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of ribociclib with rilpivirine due to an increased risk for QT prolongation. Systemic exposure of rilpivirine may also be increased resulting in increase in treatment-related adverse reactions. Ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor that has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg per day), a CYP3A4 substrate, have also caused QT prolongation. Concomitant use may increase the risk for QT prolongation.
    Rifabutin: (Major) Administration of rifabutin with rilpivirine may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations; therefore, if these drugs are given concurrently, an additional dose of rilpivirine (25 mg PO once daily) is required and the drugs should be administered with a meal. Rifabutin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Use of these drugs together may result in HIV treatment failure or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. (Major) Coadministration is not recommended. Concurrent use may result in significant decreases in the plasma concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide, leading to a reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and the potential development of viral resistance.
    Rifampin: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of rifampin and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Rifampin is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with rifampin is not recommended. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Rifapentine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of rifapentine and rilpivirine is contraindicated; when these drugs are coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. Rifapentine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Avoid coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide and rifapentine as concurrent use may decrease tenofovir alafenamide exposure leading to a reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and the potential development of viral resistance. Additionally, HIV patients treated with rifapentine have a higher rate of TB relapse than those treated with other rifamycin-based regimens; an alternative agent is recommended.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Use risperidone and rilpivirine together with caution due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Risperidone has been associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or TdP, primarily in the overdose setting. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Rivaroxaban: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with rivaroxaban, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir alafenamide plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as rivaroxaban, may increase absorption of tenofovir alafenamide, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Rolapitant: (Moderate) Coadministration of rolapitant and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir is a substrate of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp); rolapitant is a BCRP and P-gp inhibitor. The Cmax and AUC of another BCRP substrate, sulfasalazine, were increased by 140 percent and 130 percent, respectively, on day 1 with rolapitant, and by 17 percent and 32 percent, respectively, on day 8 after rolapitant administration. When rolapitant was administered with digoxin, a P-gp substrate, the day 1 Cmax and AUC were increased by 70 percent and 30 percent, respectively; the Cmax and AUC on day 8 were not studied.
    Romidepsin: (Moderate) Consider monitoring electrolytes and ECGs at baseline and periodically during treatment if romidepsin is administered with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Romidepsin has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Salicylates: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Salmeterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as salicylates. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Saquinavir: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use or switching form rilpivirine to saquinavir boosted with ritonavir without a washout period of at least 2 weeks is contraindicated. Taking these drugs together is expected to increase rilpivirine concentrations and increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Saquinavir boosted with ritonavir increases the QT interval in a dose-dependent fashion, which may increase the risk for serious arrhythmias such as TdP. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation. Before administering saquinavir boosted with ritonavir, perform a baseline ECG and carefully follow monitoring recommendations.
    Secobarbital: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Selpercatinib: (Major) Monitor ECGs more frequently for QT prolongation if coadministration of selpercatinib with rilpivirine is necessary due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. Concentration-dependent QT prolongation has been observed with selpercatinib therapy. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Use caution and monitor patients for QT prolongation when administering rilpivirine with sertraline. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Sertraline's FDA-approved labeling recommends avoiding concomitant use with drugs known to prolong the QTc interval; however, the risk of sertraline-induced QT prolongation is generally considered to be low in clinical practice. Its effect on QTc interval is minimal (typically less than 5 msec), and the drug has been used safely in patients with cardiac disease (e.g., recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina, chronic heart failure).
    Sevoflurane: (Major) Halogenated anesthetics should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with rilpivirine. Halogenated anesthetics can prolong the QT interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval.
    Short-acting beta-agonists: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Closely monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions if simeprevir is administered with tenofovir alafenamide. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP); simeprevir is an inhibitor of both P-gp and BCRP. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Siponimod: (Major) In general, do not initiate treatment with siponimod in patients receiving rilpivirine due to the potential for QT prolongation. Consult a cardiologist regarding appropriate monitoring if siponimod use is required. Siponimod therapy prolonged the QT interval at recommended doses in a clinical study. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of rilpivirine and antacids may significantly decrease rilpivirine plasma concentrations, potentially resulting in treatment failure. To decrease the risk of virologic failure, avoid use of antacids for at least 2 hours before and at least 4 hours after administering rilpivirine.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir: (Moderate) Monitor patients for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions, such as renal toxicity, in patients receiving regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide and velpatasvir due to potential increases in tenofovir serum concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP),P-glycoprotein (P-gP), OATP1B1, and OATB1B3 transporters, while velpatasvir inhibits these transporters.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Monitor patients for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions, such as renal toxicity, in patients receiving regimens containing tenofovir alafenamide and velpatasvir due to potential increases in tenofovir serum concentrations. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP),P-glycoprotein (P-gP), OATP1B1, and OATB1B3 transporters, while velpatasvir inhibits these transporters.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with solifenacin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Solifenacin has also been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Torsade de pointes (TdP) has been reported with postmarketing use, although causality was not determined. This should be taken into consideration when prescribing solifenacin to patients taking other drugs that are associated with QT prolongation.
    Sorafenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of sorafenib with rilpivirine due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor electrocardiograms and correct electrolyte abnormalities. An interruption or discontinuation of sorafenib therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Sorafenib is associated with QTc prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Sotalol: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation; caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with other drugs that may prolong the QT or PR interval. Sotalol administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Proarrhythmic events should be anticipated after initiation of therapy and after each upward dosage adjustment.
    Sotorasib: (Moderate) Coadministration of rilpivirine with sotorasib may result in decreased plasma concentrations of rilpivirine, leading to a reduction of antiretroviral efficacy and the potential development of viral resistance. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and sotorasib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with sotorasib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate and sotorasib is a P-gp inhibitor.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum and rilpivirine is contraindicated. When coadministered, there is a potential for treatment failure and/or the development of rilpivirine or NNRTI resistance. St. John's wort appears to be an inducer of CYP3A4, which is primarily responsible for the metabolism of rilpivirine. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations, which could cause impaired virologic response to rilpivirine. (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide with St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum is not recommended. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure.
    Streptomycin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Sunitinib: (Moderate) Monitor for evidence of QT prolongation if sunitinib is administered with rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Sunitinib can prolong the QT interval.
    Tacrolimus: (Major) Tacrolimus therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended when administered concurrently with tenofovir alafenamide. Use of these medications together may result in elevated tacrolimus serum concentrations. Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as tacrolimus. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein. (Moderate) Consider ECG and electrolyte monitoring periodically during treatment if tacrolimus is administered with rilpivirine. Tacrolimus may prolong the QT interval and cause torsade de pointes (TdP). Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered with tacrolimus. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Medications that decrease renal function, such as tacrolimus, may increase concentrations of emtricitabine; as emtricitabine is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion.
    Tafamidis: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of tafamidis and tenofovir alafenamide due to the potential for increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide increasing the risk of adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide dose adjustment may be needed with coadministration. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and tafamidis is a BCRP inhibitor.
    Tamoxifen: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of rilpivirine with tamoxifen is necessary due to the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tamoxifen has been reported to prolong the QT interval, usually in overdose or when used in high doses. Rare case reports of QT prolongation have been described when tamoxifen is used at lower doses.
    Tedizolid: (Moderate) If possible, stop use of tenofovir alafenamide temporarily during treatment with oral tedizolid. If coadministration cannot be avoided, closely monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse events. Tenofovir plasma concentrations may be increased when tenofovir alafenamide is administered concurrently with oral tedizolid. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP); oral tedizolid inhibits BCRP in the intestine. When tenofovir alafenamide is administered in combination with cobicistat, other inhibitors of BCRP are not expected to further increase tenofovir concentrations.
    Telavancin: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with telavancin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Telavancin has also been associated with QT prolongation.
    Telithromycin: (Major) When possible, alternative antibiotics to telithromycin should be considered in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation and rilpivirine-related adverse effects. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate that has caused QT prolongation in supratherapeutic doses (75 to 300 mg/day). Telithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor that is associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). (Moderate) Coadministration of telithromycin and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Telithromycin is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp and OATP1B1/1B3. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in tenofovir alafenamide-related adverse reactions if coadministration with temsirolimus is necessary. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and temsirolimus is a P-gp inhibitor. Concomitant use is likely to lead to increased concentrations of tenofovir alafenamide.
    Tepotinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with tepotinib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp and BCRP substrate and tepotinib is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Terbutaline: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Tetrabenazine: (Major) Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tetrabenazine causes a small increase in the corrected QT interval (QTc). The manufacturer of tetrabenazine recommends avoiding concurrent use of tetrabenazine with other drugs known to prolong QTc such as rilpivirine.
    Tezacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Minor) Use caution when administering ivacaftor and tenofovir alafenamide concurrently. Ivacaftor is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Concurrent use can increase tenofovir exposure leading to adverse events. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Thiopental: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering barbiturates with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Barbiturates are inducers of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Thioridazine: (Contraindicated) Thioridazine is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and TdP. Thioridazine is considered contraindicated for use along with rilpivirine which, when combined with thioridazine, may prolong the QT interval and increase the risk of TdP, and/or cause orthostatic hypotension.
    Ticagrelor: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring for adverse events is advised when administering rilpivirine with ticagrelor. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated rilpivirine plasma concentrations. Ticagrelor is a weak inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Rilpivirine is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. (Minor) Close clinical monitoring for adverse events is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with ticagrelor. Use of these drugs together may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Ticagrelor is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp).Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Tiotropium; Olodaterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Tipranavir: (Major) Administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with tipranavir boosted with ritonavir is not recommended. Taking these drugs together is expected to decrease tenofovir plasma concentrations, which may increase the potential for resistance and HIV treatment failure. Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); tipranavir boosted with ritonavir is an inducer of P-gp. (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering the combination of tipranavir and ritonavir with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on metabolic pathways. Tipranavir and ritonavir are inhibitors of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Tobramycin: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as aminoglycosides. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and aminoglycosides are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products, should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as aminoglycosides. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir, and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tolterodine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tolterodine has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval, especially in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering topiramate with rilpivirine due to the potential for rilpivirine treatment failure. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Topiramate is an inducer of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in decreased rilpivirine serum concentrations and impaired virologic response.
    Toremifene: (Major) Avoid coadministration of rilpivirine with toremifene if possible due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. If concomitant use is unavoidable, closely monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to administration of toremifene. Toremifene has been shown to prolong the QTc interval in a dose- and concentration-related manner. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering verapamil with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Verapamil is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) Coadministration of verapamil and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Verapamil is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Trazodone: (Major) Avoid coadministration of trazodone and rilpivirine. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Trazodone can prolong the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses. In addition, there are post-marketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP). Therefore, the manufacturer recommends avoiding trazodone in patients receiving other drugs that increase the QT interval.
    Triclabendazole: (Moderate) Monitor ECGs in patients receiving triclabendazole with rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Transient prolongation of the mean QTc interval was noted on the ECG recordings in dogs administered triclabendazole. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with trifluoperazine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Trifluoperazine is also associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Theoretically, trifluoperazine may increase the risk of QT prolongation if coadministered with other drugs that have a risk of QT prolongation.
    Trimipramine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with tricyclic antidepressants as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations).
    Triptorelin: (Moderate) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., triptorelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving rilpivirine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy may also prolong the QT/QTc interval.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent trospium administration as both are eliminated by active renal tubular secretion; coadministration has the potential to increase serum concentrations of either drug due to competition for the elimination pathway and patients should be carefully monitored.
    Tucatinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of rilpivirine with tucatinib may result in increased plasma concentrations of rilpivirine, leading to an increase in rilpivirine-related adverse effects. Rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate and tucatinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with tucatinib may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and tucatinib is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with long-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists, such as arformoterol, as compared to short-acting beta-agonists.
    Valacyclovir: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as valacyclovir. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and valacyclovir are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus if tenofovir alafenamide is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as valacyclovir. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Concurrent administration with drugs that decrease renal function may increase concentrations of tenofovir. In addition, use with drugs that are also eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of the co-administered drug. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; a majority of the cases occurred in patients who had underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent; patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents should be carefully monitored for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) Avoid administering tenofovir-containing medications concurrently with or recently after a nephrotoxic agent, such as high-dose or multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Cases of acute renal failure, some requiring hospitalization and renal replacement therapy, have been reported after high-dose or multiple NSAIDs were initiated in patients who appeared stable on tenofovir. Consider alternatives to NSAIDs in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. If these drugs must be coadministered, carefully monitor the estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to, and periodically during, treatment. (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and NSAIDs are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs.
    Valganciclovir: (Moderate) Monitor for changes in serum creatinine and adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis or hepatotoxicity if emtricitabine is administered in combination with nephrotoxic agents, such as valganciclovir. Consider the potential for drug interaction prior to and during concurrent use of these medications. Both emtricitabine and valganciclovir are excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. While no drug interactions due to competition for renal excretion have been observed, coadministration of these medications may increase concentrations of both drugs. (Moderate) Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir, with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as valganciclovir. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide with valproic acid, divalproex sodium, as there is a potential for decreased tenofovir plasma concentrations. Valproic acid is an in vitro inducer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate. Concurrent use may decrease absorption and alter metabolism of tenofovir.
    Vancomycin: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as vancomycin. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Vandetanib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of vandetanib with rilpivirine due to an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and/or hypomagnesemia prior to vandetanib administration. An interruption of vandetanib therapy or dose reduction may be necessary for QT prolongation. Vandetanib can prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner; TdP and sudden death have been reported in patients receiving vandetanib. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Vardenafil: (Moderate) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with vardenafil. Vardenafil is associated with QT prolongation. Both therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of vardenafil produce an increase in QTc interval. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have also caused QT prolongation.
    Vemurafenib: (Major) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with vemurafenib. If these drugs must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Both vemurafenib and supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have been associated with QT prolongation. Also, rilpivirine is a CYP3A4 substrate, while vemurafenib is a CYP3A4 substrate and inducer. Therefore, decreased concentrations of rilpivirine and potential loss of virologic response may occur with concomitant use. (Moderate) Coadministration of vemurafenib and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Vemurafenib is an inhibitor of the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp and BCRP substrate. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with venlafaxine as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Venlafaxine administration is also associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; torsade de pointes (TdP) has reported with postmarketing use.
    Verapamil: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering verapamil with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Verapamil is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations. (Moderate) Coadministration of verapamil and tenofovir alafenamide may result in elevated tenofovir concentrations. Verapamil is an inhibitor of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Tenofovir alafenamide is a substrate for P-gp. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.
    Voclosporin: (Moderate) Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide and voclosporin may result in increased plasma concentrations of tenofovir leading to an increase in tenofovir-related adverse effects. Concomitant use may also may result in additive nephrotoxicity. Monitor for renal toxicity if concomitant use is required. Tenofovir alafenamide is a P-gp substrate and voclosporin is a P-gp inhibitor. (Moderate) Concomitant use of voclosporin and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Consider interventions to minimize the risk of progression to torsades de pointes (TdP), such as ECG monitoring and correcting electrolyte abnormalities, particularly in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Both voclosporin and rilpivirine have been associated with QT prolongation at supratherapeutic doses.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering voriconazole with rilpivirine due to the potential for additive effects on the QT interval, increased exposure to rilpivirine, and decreased exposure to voriconazole. Monitor for breakthrough fungal infections in patients receiving rilpivirine with an azole antifungal. Rilpivirine, a CYP3A4 substrate, and voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, are both associated with QT prolongation; rilpivirine dosage adjustments are not recommended. In addition, concurrent use of rilpivirine decreased exposure to another azole antifungal. A similar interaction may occur with voriconazole.
    Vorinostat: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with vorinostat. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Vorinostat therapy is also associated with a risk of QT prolongation.
    Zafirlukast: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering zafirlukast with rilpivirine due to an increased potential for rilpivirine-related adverse events. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions can be made based on metabolic pathways. Zafirlukast is an inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; rilpivirine is metabolized by this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in increased rilpivirine plasma concentrations.
    Ziprasidone: (Major) Concomitant use of ziprasidone and rilpivirine should be avoided due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. Clinical trial data indicate that ziprasidone causes QT prolongation; there are postmarketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP) in patients with multiple confounding factors. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation.
    Zoledronic Acid: (Moderate) Tenofovir-containing products should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent, such as zoledronic acid. Tenofovir is primarily excreted via the kidneys by a combination of glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide with drugs that are eliminated by active tubular secretion may increase concentrations of tenofovir and/or the co-administered drug. Drugs that decrease renal function may also increase concentrations of tenofovir. Renal impairment, which may include hypophosphatemia, has been reported with the use of tenofovir with a majority of the cases occurring in patients who have underlying systemic or renal disease or who are concurrently taking nephrotoxic agents. Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and protein.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering tenofovir alafenamide concurrently with zonisamide, as coadministration may result in elevated tenofovir plasma concentrations. Inhibitors of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), such as zonisamide, may increase absorption of tenofovir alafenamide, a P-gp substrate. If these medications are administered together, monitor for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Of note, when tenofovir alafenamide is administered as part of a cobicistat-containing product, its availability is increased by cobicistat and a further increase of tenofovir alafenamide concentrations is not expected upon coadministration of an additional P-gp inhibitor.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Antiretroviral therapy should be provided to all women during pregnancy, regardless of HIV RNA concentrations or CD4 cell count. Using highly active antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) to maximally suppress viral replication is the most effective strategy to prevent the development of resistance and to minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. In treatment-naive women, begin HAART as soon as pregnancy is recognized or HIV is diagnosed, without waiting for the results of resistance testing; subsequent modifications to the treatment regimen should be made once the test results are available. Women who are currently receiving antiretroviral treatment when pregnancy is recognized should continue their treatment regimen if it is currently effective in suppressing viral replication; consider resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations are greater than 500 copies/mL. For women not currently receiving HAART, but who have previously received treatment, obtain a complete and accurate history of all prior antiretroviral regimens used and results of prior resistance testing, and perform resistance testing if HIV RNA concentrations are greater than 500 copies/mL; treatment should be initiated prior to receiving resistance test results. HIV guidelines recommend emtricitabine; rilpivirine; tenofovir alafenamide as an alternative treatment option for use during pregnancy. However, because pharmacokinetic data show decreased rilpivirine exposures during the second and third trimesters, close monitoring of viral loads is recommended during pregnancy (i.e., every 1 to 2 months). Available data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, which includes first trimester exposures to emtricitabine (more than 3,900 exposures), rilpivirine (more than 550 exposures), and tenofovir alafenamide (more than 520 exposures), have shown no difference in the risk of overall major birth defects when compared to the 2.7% background rate among pregnant women in the US. When exposure occurred in the first trimester, the prevalence of defects was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.2 to 3.2) for emtricitabine, 1.4% (95% CI: 0.6 to 2.8) for rilpivirine, and 4.2% (95% CI: 2.6 to 6.3) for tenofovir alafenamide. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. An association of mitochondrial dysfunction in infants and in utero antiretroviral exposure has been suggested, but not established. While the development of severe or fatal mitochondrial disease in exposed infants appears to be extremely rare, more intensive monitoring of hematologic and electrolyte parameters during the first few weeks of life is advised. Nucleoside analogs have been associated with the development of lactic acidosis, especially during pregnancy. It is unclear if pregnancy augments the incidence of lactic acidosis/hepatic steatosis in patients receiving nucleoside analogs. However, because pregnancy can mimic some of the early symptoms of the lactic acid/hepatic steatosis syndrome or be associated with other significant disorders of liver metabolism, clinicians need to be alert for early diagnosis of this syndrome. Pregnant women receiving nucleoside analogs should have LFTs and serum electrolytes assessed more frequently during the last trimester and any new symptoms should be evaluated thoroughly. Regular laboratory monitoring is recommended to determine antiretroviral efficacy. Monitor CD4 counts at the initial visit. Women who have been on HAART for at least 2 years and have consistent viral suppression and CD4 counts consistently greater than 300 cells/mm3 do not need CD4 counts monitored after the initial visit during the pregnancy. However, CD4 counts should be monitored every 3 months during pregnancy for women on HAART less than 2 years, women with CD4 count less than 300 cells/mm3, or women with inconsistent adherence or detectable viral loads. Monitor plasma HIV RNA at the initial visit, 2 to 4 weeks after initiating or changing therapy, monthly until undetectable, then at least every 3 months during pregnancy, and at 34 to 36 weeks gestation. Perform antiretroviral resistance assay (genotypic testing, and if indicated, phenotypic testing) at baseline in all women with HIV RNA concentrations greater than 500 copies/mL, unless they have already been tested for resistance. First trimester ultrasound is recommended to confirm gestational age and provide an accurate estimation of gestational age at delivery. A second trimester ultrasound can be used for both anatomical survey and determination of gestational age in those patients not seen until later in gestation. Perform