PDR MEMBER LOGIN:
  • PDR Search

    Required field
  • Advertisement
  • CLASSES

    Other Urinary Antiseptics
    Urinary Analgesics and Anesthetics

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Methenamine, sodium acid phosphate, methylene blue, and hyoscyamine are agents providing local urinary antibacterial effect, acidification of the urine, and antispasmodic activity
    Used to suppress symptoms of irritative voiding associated with lower urinary tract infections or which are caused by diagnostic procedures.
    Products have been marketed since pre-1962 and thus have not undergone evaluation by FDA for clinical safety and efficacy.

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Uro-BLUE, Urogesic Blue, Urolet

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Methenamine, Methylene Blue, Hyoscyamine Sulfate, Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic/Uro-BLUE/Urogesic Blue/Urolet Oral Tab

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the relief of discomfort associated with lower urinary tract infection (UTI) or diagnostic procedures by producing urinary acidification, reducing bacteriuria, and reducing spasmodic activity.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    1 tablet or capsule PO 4 times daily, followed by liberal fluid intake.

    Adolescents and Children 6 years and older

    Dosage must be individualized by physician.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    4 tablets (or doses)/day PO for Urogesic-Blue.

    Geriatric

    4 tablets (or doses)/day PO for Urogesic-Blue.

    Adolescents

    Dose must be individualized.

    Children

    6 years and older: Dose must be individualized.
    5 years and younger: Use not established.

    Infants

    Do not use.

    Neonates

    Do not use.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available. Use of methenamine-containing products is generally not recommended in patients with severe hepatic disease.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available. In general, these products should not be used in patients with severe renal insufficiency, severe dehydration, oliguria or anuria.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Tablets should be taken orally with liberal fluid intake.
    Patients and caregivers should be advised that the urine may become blue to blue green and the feces may be discolored (due to the methylene blue component of the product).

    STORAGE

    Indiomin MB:
    - Protect from direct sunlight
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a cool, dry place
    Uro-BLUE:
    - Protect from direct sunlight
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Urogesic Blue:
    - Protect from direct sunlight
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    Urolet :
    - Protect from direct sunlight
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    UTA:
    - Protect from direct sunlight
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Store in a cool, dry place

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    NOTE: The following describes the combination of methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine oral products when used as prescribed. Clinicians may wish to consult the individual monographs for more information about each agent.
    NOTE: There are no data which support the safety of the long-term use of these products in humans.

    Formaldehyde hypersensitivity

    Methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine is contraindicated in any patient with a hypersensitivity to any of the product components and including formaldehyde hypersensitivity since methenamine produces formaldehyde as an active ingredient. Use with caution in patients with hypersensitivity to other belladonna alkaloids, since cross-sensitivity or intolerance may occur.

    Bladder obstruction, cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, GI obstruction, glaucoma, heart failure, ileus, mitral stenosis, myasthenia gravis, prostatic hypertrophy, urinary retention, urinary tract obstruction

    Risk-benefit should be considered when using methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine in the presence of the following medical problems, considering the anticholinergic effects of hyoscyamine and the effects of the other components: Cardiac disease (especially cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, and mitral stenosis); myasthenia gravis; and glaucoma. Relative contraindications to use include urinary tract obstruction (as urinary retention may be precipitated by the use of this drug combination in conditions such as obstructive uropathy, bladder obstruction, or prostatic hypertrophy) and GI obstruction (e.g., ileus and other obstruction). The elderly may be more susceptible to anticholinergic effects. If rapid pulse, dizziness or blurring of vision occurs, patients should discontinue use of this product immediately.[49784]

    Anuria, dehydration, hepatic disease, oliguria, renal failure, renal impairment

    Because dehydration can lead to poor urinary output and liberal fluid intake is necessary for proper drug effect and elimination, use methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine combinations with caution in patients with dehydration. Use with caution in patients with renal impairment, as no recommendations are available. Methenamine-containing products are generally not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment, renal failure, oliguria, or anuria. There are also no data for patients with hepatic disease, and these products are generally not for use in patients with severe hepatic disease.

    Children, infants, neonates

    The FDA has never formally evaluated the clinical safety and efficacy of this drug combination in children or any other population. Methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine should be used with caution in older children aged 6 years and up, since children are generally more sensitive to the anticholinergic effects of the belladonna alkaloids. Doses must be individualized. There is no known use for this drug combination in children younger than 6 years of age, infants, or neonates.

    Eclampsia, pregnancy

    Methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine combinations are classified in FDA pregnancy risk category C. There are no animal data or human data, and it is not known if this drug combination could cause fetal harm. These products should be given to a pregnant woman only when absolutely necessary. Additionally, sodium phosphates should be administered with caution in patients with toxemia of pregnancy (eclampsia).

    Breast-feeding

    Methenamine (small amounts) and traces of hyoscyamine are excreted in breast milk. Use with caution since anticholinergic medications like hyoscyamine have been reported to diminish lactation; although, the manufacturer states that problems in humans related to lactation and breast-feeding have not been documented with this product. Alternatives may include methenamine monotherapy or the use of methenamine; sodium phosphate products which do not contain hyoscyamine or methylene blue. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Edema, hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, hypertension, sodium restriction

    Sodium phosphates, which are found in methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine products, should generally be used with caution in patients with sodium or phosphate sensitive conditions, such as a need for sodium restriction, hypernatremia, hyperphosphatemia, heart failure, edema, and hypertension.

    Geriatric

    Use methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine products with caution in the geriatric patient, given the greater sensitivity to anticholinergic effects of this drug combination; the older adult may also experience drowsiness, agitation, excitement or confusion with usual doses. If rapid pulse, dizziness or blurring of vision occurs, patients should discontinue use of this product immediately. According to the Beers Criteria, anti-spasmodics such as hyoscyamine are considered potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in geriatric patients and should be avoided in this population due to uncertain effectiveness and high anticholinergic activity. The Beers expert panel also recommends avoiding drugs with strong anticholinergic properties, such as hyoscyamine, in geriatric patients with the following due to the potential for symptom exacerbation or adverse effects: dementia/cognitive impairment (adverse CNS effects), delirium/high risk of delirium (new-onset or worsening delirium), or lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia in men (urinary retention or hesitancy).

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    angioedema / Rapid / 0-1.0
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0

    Moderate

    constipation / Delayed / 1.0-10.0
    blurred vision / Early / 1.0-10.0
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 1.0-10.0
    urinary retention / Early / 1.0-10.0
    confusion / Early / 0-1.0
    dyspnea / Early / 0-1.0

    Mild

    vomiting / Early / 1.0-10.0
    nausea / Early / 1.0-10.0
    dizziness / Early / 1.0-10.0
    drowsiness / Early / 1.0-10.0
    flushing / Rapid / 1.0-10.0
    rash / Early / 1.0-10.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 1.0-10.0
    agitation / Early / 0-1.0
    xerostomia / Early / 10.0
    urine discoloration / Early / 10.0
    stool discoloration / Delayed / 10.0

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Contraindicated) Dihydrocodeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxycodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when pentazocine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of pentazocine and anticholinergic medications may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and pentazocine may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and pentazocine increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Acetazolamide: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Acetazolamide can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Aclidinium: (Moderate) Although aclidinium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for aclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics.Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of aclidinium with other anticholinergic medications, when possible.
    Aclidinium; Formoterol: (Moderate) Although aclidinium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for aclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics.Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of aclidinium with other anticholinergic medications, when possible.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Alfentanil: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of methylene blue with alfentanil due to risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. Monitor patients for hypertension and serotonin syndrome and ensure ready availability of vasodilators and beta-blockers for the treatment of hypertension, as needed, if alfentanil is administered to patients who have received methylene blue within 14 days. Do not administer alfentanil within 72 hours of the last dose of methylene blue. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when alfentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of alfentanil and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Aliskiren; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Alkalinizing Agents: (Major) Avoid the administration of Alkalinizing agents to patients who are being treated with methenamine, as an acidic urine is required for methenamine therapeutic efficacy. Alkalinized urine decreases methenamine efficacy by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption and inhibits the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form.
    Alosetron: (Major) Concomitant use of alosetron and anticholinergics, which can decrease GI motility, may seriously worsen constipation, leading to events such as GI obstuction, impaction, or paralytic ileus. Although specific recommendations are not available from the manufacturer, it would be prudent to avoid anticholinergics in patients taking alosetron.
    Aluminum Hydroxide: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Carbonate: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aluminum Hydroxide; Magnesium Trisilicate: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Amantadine: (Major) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when hyoscyamine is used concomitantly with other drugs that possess antimuscarinic effects.
    Ambenonium Chloride: (Major) The muscarinic actions of ambenonium chloride can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of hyoscyamine.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Amitriptyline: (Contraindicated) Per the manufacturer, treatment initiation with amitriptyline is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than amitriptyline (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving amitriptyline and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, amitriptyline should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Amitriptyline may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Amoxapine: (Moderate) Amoxapine should be used cautiously with intravenous methylene blue. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (MAO-A). Amoxapine primarily increases the activity of norepinephrine, with in vitro data suggesting an insignificant binding affinity for serotonin. Therefore, the potential for serotonin syndrome during coadministration of amoxapine and methylene blue is unclear. Monitoring for potential increases in blood pressure is advised due to the potential for additive noradrenergic activity. (Moderate) Depending on the specific agent, additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when amoxapine is used concomitantly with other anticholinergic agents. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive CNS effects are also possible when these drugs are combined with amoxapine.
    Amphetamine: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Major) Urinary acidifying agents, such as ammonium chloride, phosphorus salts, and methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine; sodium acid phosphate), reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. Combination therapy should be avoided if possible.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma.
    Amphetamines: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma.
    Antacids: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C: (Moderate) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Ascorbic acid, vitamin C can produce unpredictable changes in urine pH and should be avoided as a urinary acidifier. In addition, orange juice also should be avoided because citric acid ultimately may raise urine pH.
    Aspirin, ASA: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Contraindicated) Dihydrocodeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when hyoscyamine is used concomitantly with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including orphenadrine.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Aspirin, ASA; Citric Acid; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Aspirin, ASA; Dipyridamole: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Aspirin, ASA; Omeprazole: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxycodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Aspirin, ASA; Pravastatin: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Atropine; Difenoxin: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Atropine; Edrophonium: (Major) The muscarinic actions of edrophonium chloride can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of hyoscyamine.
    Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when opium is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of opium and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Major) The use of benzhydrocodone is not recommended in patients who have received a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within 14 days. Methylene blue is a reversible inhibitor of MAO. Concomitant use of benzhydrocodone with other serotonergic drugs such as MAOIs may result in serious adverse effects including serotonin syndrome. MAOIs may cause additive CNS depression, respiratory depression, drowsiness, dizziness, or hypotension when used with opiate agonists such as benzhydrocodone. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when benzhydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of benzhydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Benzphetamine: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Urinary acidifying agents, such as ammonium chloride, phosphorus salts, and methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine; sodium acid phosphate), reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. Combination therapy should be avoided if possible.
    Betamethasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Botulinum Toxins: (Moderate) The use of systemic antimuscarinic/anticholinergic agents following the administration of botulinum toxins may result in a potentiation of systemic anticholinergic effects (e.g., blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, or urinary retention).
    Bromocriptine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloid derivatives such as bromocriptine may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Budesonide: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of buprenorphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when buprenorphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of buprenorphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of buprenorphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when buprenorphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of buprenorphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Bupropion: (Contraindicated) Due to an increased risk of hypertensive reactions, treatment initiation with bupropion is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous methylene blue. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than bupropion (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving bupropion and requiring urgent treatment with intravenous methylene blue, bupropion should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of methylene blue outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for hypertensive reactions for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Bupropion may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. It is not known if administration of methylene blue by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when hyoscyamine is used concomitantly with bupropion. Additive drowsiness may occur. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Bupropion; Naltrexone: (Contraindicated) Due to an increased risk of hypertensive reactions, treatment initiation with bupropion is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous methylene blue. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than bupropion (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving bupropion and requiring urgent treatment with intravenous methylene blue, bupropion should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of methylene blue outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for hypertensive reactions for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Bupropion may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. It is not known if administration of methylene blue by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when hyoscyamine is used concomitantly with bupropion. Additive drowsiness may occur. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Buspirone: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and buspirone may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and buspirone increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Butorphanol: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when butorphanol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of butorphanol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Caffeine: (Major) Sodium phosphates should be used with caution in patients using concomitant medications that lower the seizure threshold like psychostimulants.
    Calcium Carbonate: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Calcium Carbonate; Famotidine; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Calcium Carbonate; Magnesium Hydroxide; Simethicone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Calcium Carbonate; Risedronate: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Calcium Carbonate; Simethicone: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Calcium; Vitamin D: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of calcium carbonate and methenamine. Calcium carbonate may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Capsaicin; Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of IV methylene blue and metaxalone may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Consult the IV methylene blue product label for management. Monitor patients for serotonin syndrome if concomitant use is necessary.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Drowsiness has been reported during administration of carbetapentane. An enhanced CNS depressant effect may occur when carbetapentane is combined with other CNS depressants including anticholinergics. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Minor) Through its central antimuscarinic actions, hyoscyamine can potentiate the dopaminergic effects of levodopa. Clinicians should be ready to decrease doses of levodopa if hyoscyamine is added.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Minor) Through its central antimuscarinic actions, hyoscyamine can potentiate the dopaminergic effects of levodopa. Clinicians should be ready to decrease doses of levodopa if hyoscyamine is added.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Contraindicated) Tramadol use is contraindicated in patients who are receiving or who have received monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) within the previous 14 days. Methylene blue is a reversible inhibitor of MAO. Concomitant use of tramadol with other serotonergic drugs such as MAOIs may result in serious adverse effects including serotonin syndrome or seizures. MAOIs may cause additive CNS depression, respiratory depression, drowsiness, dizziness, or hypotension when used with opiate agonists such as tramadol. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when tramadol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of tramadol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with anticholinergics should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of anticholinergic and CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive anticholinergic effects, sedation, and somnolence.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with anticholinergics should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of anticholinergic and CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive anticholinergic effects, sedation, and somnolence.
    Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Contraindicated) Per the manufacturer, treatment initiation with amitriptyline is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than amitriptyline (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving amitriptyline and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, amitriptyline should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Amitriptyline may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Chlorothiazide: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dihydrocodeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dihydrocodeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Chlorpromazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including chlorpromazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Chlorthalidone; Clonidine: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Choline Salicylate; Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Cholinergic agonists: (Major) The muscarinic actions of drugs known as parasympathomimetics, including both direct cholinergic receptor agonists and cholinesterase inhibitors, can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of anticholinergic drugs, and vice versa.
    Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Cisapride: (Moderate) The use of drugs that decrease GI motility, such as hyoscyamine, may pharmacodynamically oppose the effects of cisapride.
    Citalopram: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of citalopram, treatment initiation with citalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than citalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving citalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, citalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Citalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate; Sodium Citrate: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Clomipramine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of clomipramine, treatment initiation with clomipramine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than clomipramine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving clomipramine and requiring urgent treatment with intravenous methylene blue, clomipramine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of methylene blue outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Clomipramine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, is the most selective and potent inhibitor of serotonin within its class. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report describes a patient receiving clomipramine who experienced jerky movements in all four limbs, as well as confusion and agitation after intravenous administration of methylene blue, with a return to her pre-operative state by day 4. Although the authors attribute this reaction to methylene blue toxicity, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenousely administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Clozapine: (Major) Avoid co-prescribing clozapine with other anticholinergic medicines that can cause gastrointestinal hypomotility, due to a potential to increase serious constipation, ileus, and other potentially serious bowel conditions that may result in hospitalization. Clozapine exhibits potent anticholinergic effects. Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when clozapine is used concomitantly with anticholinergic agents. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used.
    Cocaine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and cocaine may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and cocaine increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents, like cocaine, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Codeine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including promethazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Contraindicated) Codeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including promethazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when codeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of codeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Colchicine: (Moderate) Colchicine is an alkaloid that is inhibited by acidifying agents. The colchicine dose may need adjustment
    Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Cortisone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Crofelemer: (Moderate) Pharmacodynamic interactions between crofelemer and antimuscarinics are theoretically possible. Crofelemer does not affect GI motility mechanisms, but does have antidiarrheal effects. Patients taking medications that decrease GI motility, such as antimuscarinics, may be at greater risk for serious complications from crofelemer, such as constipation with chronic use. Use caution and monitor GI symptoms during coadministration.
    Cyclizine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Moderate) Depending on the specific agent, additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with antimuscarinic properties like cyclobenzaprine are used concomitantly with other anticholinergics. Clinicians should note that additive antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Monitor for effects such as constipation and urinary retention. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the interacting agent.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dasiglucagon: (Major) The concomitant use of intravenous glucagon and anticholinergics increases the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions due to additive effects on inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Concomitant use is not recommended.
    Deflazacort: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Desipramine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer, treatment initiation with desipramine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than desipramine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving desipramine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, desipramine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Desipramine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Desvenlafaxine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
    Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma.
    Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Major) Hyoscyamine may increase the absorption of quinidine by decreasing GI motility and thereby enhancing absorption with possible toxicity. Increased monitoring is advised in patients receiving a combination of these drugs.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphates cautiously with diazoxide, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Dichlorphenamide: (Moderate) Use dichlorphenamide and sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous together with caution. Dichlorphenamide increases potassium excretion and can cause hypokalemia and should be used cautiously with other drugs that may cause hypokalemia including laxatives. Measure potassium concentrations at baseline and periodically during dichlorphenamide treatment. If hypokalemia occurs or persists, consider reducing the dichlorphenamide dose or discontinuing dichlorphenamide therapy.
    Digoxin: (Moderate) Anticholinergics, because of their ability to cause tachycardia, can antagonize the beneficial actions of digoxin in atrial fibrillation/flutter. Routine therapeutic monitoring should be continued when an antimuscarinic agent is prescribed with digoxin until the effects of combined use are known.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dihydrocodeine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when dihydrocodeine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of dihydrocodeine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Dihydroergotamine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Diphenoxylate; Atropine: (Moderate) Diphenoxylate is a synthetic opiate derivative that appears to exert its effect locally and centrally on the smooth mucle cells of the GI tract to inhibit GI motility and slow excess GI propulsion. The effects can be additive to antimuscarinic agents, such as hyoscyamine. In some cases, constipation might occur, and effects on the CNS or bladder function may also be additive.
    Disopyramide: (Moderate) In addition to its electrophysiologic effects, disopyramide exhibits clinically significant anticholinergic properties. These can be additive with other anticholinergics. Clinicians should be aware that urinary retention, particularly in males, and aggravation of glaucoma are realistic possibilities of using disopyramide with other anticholinergic agents.
    Dolasetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering dolasetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as methylene blue. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue dolasetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) The adverse effects of anticholinergics, such as dry mouth, urinary hesitancy or blurred vision may be enhanced with use of memantine; dosage adjustments of the anticholinergic drug may be required when memantine is coadministered. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that chronic anticholinergic use in patients with Alzheimer's Disease may possibly have an adverse effect on cognitive function. Therefore, the effectiveness of drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's such as memantine, may be adversely affected by chronic antimuscarinic therapy. (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Doxepin: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer, treatment initiation with doxepin is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than doxepin (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving doxepin and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, doxepin should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Doxepin may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Dronabinol: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with anticholinergics is necessary. Concurrent use of dronabinol, THC with anticholinergics may result in additive drowsiness, hypertension, tachycardia, and possibly cardiotoxicity.
    Duloxetine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
    Edrophonium: (Major) The muscarinic actions of edrophonium chloride can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of hyoscyamine.
    Eluxadoline: (Major) Avoid use of eluxadoline with medications that may cause constipation, such as anticholinergics. Discontinue use of eluxadoline in patients who develop severe constipation lasting more than 4 days.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Erdafitinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of sodium phosphates with erdafitinib before the initial dose increase period (days 14 to 21) which is based on serum phosphate levels. Sodium phosphates increase serum phosphate levels. Erdafitinib causes hyperphosphatemia as a consequence of FGFR inhibition. Changes in serum phosphate levels by sodium phosphate may interfere with the determination of this initial dose increase and may cause additive hyperphosphatemia.
    Ergoloid Mesylates: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Ergonovine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Ergot alkaloids: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Ergotamine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Erythromycin: (Moderate) Anticholinergics can antagonize the stimulatory effects of erythromycin on the GI tract (when erythromycin is used therapeutically for improving GI motility). Avoid chronic administration of antimuscarinics along with prokinetic agents under most circumstances. In addition, erythromycin is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and can reduce the metabolism of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, including some anticholinergics.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly. (Moderate) Anticholinergics can antagonize the stimulatory effects of erythromycin on the GI tract (when erythromycin is used therapeutically for improving GI motility). Avoid chronic administration of antimuscarinics along with prokinetic agents under most circumstances. In addition, erythromycin is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and can reduce the metabolism of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, including some anticholinergics.
    Escitalopram: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of escitalopram, treatment initiation with escitalopram is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than escitalopram (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving escitalopram and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, escitalopram should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Escitalopram may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Caution is advisable during concurrent use of ezogabine and medications that may affect voiding such as anticholinergic agents. Ezogabine has caused urinary retention requiring catheterization in some cases. The anticholinergic effects of antimuscariinic and anticholinergic medications on the urinary tract may be additive. Additive sedation or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Fenfluramine: (Contraindicated) Coadministration of fenfluramine with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as methylene blue, or within 14 days after discontinuation of treatment with methylene blue is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome.
    Fentanyl: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of fentanyl in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when fentanyl is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of fentanyl and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Flunisolide: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Fluoxetine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of fluoxetine, treatment initiation with fluoxetine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than fluoxetine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving fluoxetine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, fluoxetine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 5 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Fluoxetine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Fluphenazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including fluphenazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Fluticasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) There is the potential for umeclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of umeclidinium with other anticholinergic medications when possible. (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Fluvoxamine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of fluvoxamine, treatment initiation with fluvoxamine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than fluvoxamine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving fluvoxamine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, fluvoxamine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Fluvoxamine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Food: (Moderate) Methenamine should theoretically not be administered concurrently with food or beverages that may alter urinary pH, such as milk products and most fruits. These agents may cause the urine to become alkaline and reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. Orange juice is not a reliable urinary acidifier and should not be used to ensure urine acidification; citric acid may actually raise urine pH if taken in large amounts.
    Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Galantamine: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Glucagon: (Major) The concomitant use of intravenous glucagon and anticholinergics increases the risk of gastrointestinal adverse reactions due to additive effects on inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Concomitant use is not recommended.
    Glycopyrronium: (Moderate) Although glycopyrronium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after topical application, there is the potential for glycopyrronium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of glycopyrronium with other anticholinergic medications.
    Granisetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering granisetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as methylene blue. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue granisetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Additive adverse effects resulting from cholinergic blockade may occur when hyoscyamine is administered concomitantly with haloperidol.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydralazine: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphates cautiously with hydralazine as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Use sodium phosphates cautiously with hydralazine as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphates cautiously with hydralazine as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Methyldopa: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Use sodium phosphates cautiously with methyldopa, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Hydrocodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydrocodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydrocodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Hydromorphone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hydromorphone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydromorphone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of hydromorphone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as hyoscyamine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxycodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Imipramine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer, treatment initiation with imipramine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than imipramine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving imipramine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, imipramine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Imipramine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Ipratropium: (Moderate) Although ipratropium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinic or anticholinergic medications. Per the manufacturer, avoid coadministration.
    Ipratropium; Albuterol: (Moderate) Although ipratropium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinic or anticholinergic medications. Per the manufacturer, avoid coadministration.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Isocarboxazid: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); Methylene Blue injection may cause serious or fatal serotonergic syndrome when used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent MAOI. Whenever possible, a washout period should elapse between the use of the MAOI and Methylene Blue injection. Patients treated with Methylene Blue injection should be monitored for serotonin syndrome. If symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, discontinue use, and initiate supportive treatment. Inform patients of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome and advise them to not to take any serotonergic drugs within 72 hours after the last dose of Methylene Blue. If the IV use of Methylene Blue cannot be avoided, choose the lowest possible dose and closely observe the patient for CNS and serotonin-related effects for up to 4 hours after Methylene Blue is given.
    Isoniazid, INH: (Major) Concurrent use of methylene blue and drugs that possess MAOI-like activity (e.g., isoniazid, INH) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clompiramine. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Concurrent use of methylene blue and drugs that possess MAOI-like activity (e.g., isoniazid, INH) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clompiramine. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Concurrent use of methylene blue and drugs that possess MAOI-like activity (e.g., isoniazid, INH) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clompiramine. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Antimuscarinics can raise intragastric pH. This effect may decrease the oral bioavailability of itraconazole; antimuscarinics should be used cautiously in patients receiving itraconazole.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Serotonin syndrome may occur during coadministration of lasmiditan and methylene blue. Inform patients taking this combination of the possible increased risk and monitor for the emergence of serotonin syndrome, particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Discontinue all serotonergic agents if serotonin syndrome occurs and implement appropriate medical management.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with anticholinergics should generally be avoided. Coadministration may increase the risk of anticholinergic and CNS depressant-related side effects. If concurrent use is necessary, monitor for excessive anticholinergic effects, sedation, and somnolence.
    Levodopa: (Minor) Through its central antimuscarinic actions, hyoscyamine can potentiate the dopaminergic effects of levodopa. Clinicians should be ready to decrease doses of levodopa if hyoscyamine is added.
    Levomilnacipran: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
    Levorphanol: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of methylene blue with levorphanol due to risk of serotonin syndrome. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. Do not administer levorphanol within 72 hours of the last dose of methylene blue. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when levorphanol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of levorphanol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Linaclotide: (Moderate) Anticholinergics can promote constipation and pharmacodynamically oppose the action of drugs used for the treatment of constipation or constipation-associated irritable bowel syndrome, such as linaclotide.
    Linezolid: (Major) Concurrent use of methylene blue and medications with serotonergic effects, such as linezolid, should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and linezolid is an antibiotic with reversible, non-selective MAO inhibitor activity. Since MAO type A deaminates serotonin, administration of linezolid concurrently with another agent with MAO-A inhibiting activity can potentially increase serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with linezolid are at a comparable risk. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Concurrent use of urinary acidifying agents, such as methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine containing urinary products) and lisdexamfetamine should be avoided if possible. Urinary acidifying agents reduce the tubular reabsorption of amphetamines. As a result, amphetamine clearance is accelerated and the duration of effect is reduced. If combination therapy is necessary, adjust the lisdexamfetamine dose according to clinical response as needed.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Lithium: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and lithium may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and lithium is thought to increase central serotonin effects by various mechanisms. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other psychiatric serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical treatment should be implemented.
    Lorcaserin: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and lorcaserin may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and lorcaserin increases central serotonin effects). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Loxapine: (Moderate) Loxapine has anticholinergic activity. The concomitant use of loxapine and other anticholinergic drugs can increase the risk of anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma, constipation, and urinary retention. Depending on the agent used, additive drowsiness/dizziness may also occur.
    Lubiprostone: (Moderate) Antimuscarinic drugs can promote constipation and pharmacodynamically oppose the action of drugs used for the treatment of constipation, such as lubiprostone. The clinical significance of these potential interactions is uncertain.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Antipsychotic agents may disrupt core temperature regulation; therefore, caution is recommended during concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Concurrent use of lurasidone and medications with anticholinergic activity may contribute to heat-related disorders. Monitor patients for heat intolerance, decreased sweating, or increased body temperature if lurasidone is used with antimuscarinics.
    Macimorelin: (Major) Avoid use of macimorelin with drugs that may blunt the growth hormone response to macimorelin, such as antimuscarinic anticholinergic agents. Healthcare providers are advised to discontinue anticholinergics at least 1 week before administering macimorelin. Use of these medications together may impact the accuracy of the macimorelin growth hormone test.
    Magnesium Hydroxide: (Major) Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (as well as other antacids, i.e. aluminum hydroxide; magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide; magaldrate; magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide; magnesium trisilicate) may interact with urinary acidifiers by alkalinizing the urine. Frequent use of these high dose antacids should be avoided in patients receiving urinary acidifiers. (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Antacids containing alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of anticholinergics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Magnesium Salicylate: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when hyoscyamine is used concomitantly with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including maprotiline. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. (Moderate) Maprotiline should be used cautiously with intravenous methylene blue. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (MAO-A). Maprotiline is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Therefore, the potential for serotonin syndrome during coadministration of maprotiline and methylene blue is unclear. Monitoring for potential increases in blood pressure is advised.
    Meclizine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Memantine: (Moderate) The adverse effects of anticholinergics, such as dry mouth, urinary hesitancy or blurred vision may be enhanced with use of memantine; dosage adjustments of the anticholinergic drug may be required when memantine is coadministered. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that chronic anticholinergic use in patients with Alzheimer's Disease may possibly have an adverse effect on cognitive function. Therefore, the effectiveness of drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's such as memantine, may be adversely affected by chronic antimuscarinic therapy.
    Meperidine: (Contraindicated) Meperidine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or precipitation of other unpredictable, severe, and occasionally fatal reactions, possibly related to preexisting hyperphenylalaninemia. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when meperidine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of meperidine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Contraindicated) Meperidine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or precipitation of other unpredictable, severe, and occasionally fatal reactions, possibly related to preexisting hyperphenylalaninemia. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including promethazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when meperidine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of meperidine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Metaxalone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of IV methylene blue and metaxalone may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Consult the IV methylene blue product label for management. Monitor patients for serotonin syndrome if concomitant use is necessary.
    Methadone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of methadone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when methadone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of methadone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Minor) As methadone is a weak base, the renal elimination of methadone is increased by urine acidification. Thus acidifying agents may lower the serum methadone concentration. The limited amounts of circulating methadone that undergo glomerular filtration are partially reabsorbed by the kidney tubules, and this reabsorption is pH-dependent. Several studies have demonstrated that methadone is cleared faster from the body with an acidic urinary pH as compared with a more basic pH.
    Methamphetamine: (Contraindicated) Amphetamines should not be administered during or within 14 days after the use of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which can prolong and intensify the cardiac stimulation and vasopressor effects of amphetamines, potentially resulting in hypertensive crisis. Methylene blue also has the potential to interact with serotonergic agents, such as amphetamines, which may increase the risk for serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), and in rare instances, death. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents, such as amphetamines, with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. (Major) Methenamine and methenamine salts (e.g., methenamine; sodium acid phosphate) are urinary acidifiers, and acidic urine will significantly decrease the half-life of methamphetamine. Urinary acidifying agents increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, which increases urinary excretion.
    Methazolamide: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Methazolamide can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Methoxsalen: (Moderate) Use methoxsalen and methylene blue together with caution; the risk of severe burns/photosensitivity may be additive. If concurrent use is necessary, closely monitor patients for signs or symptoms of skin toxicity.
    Methyclothiazide: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Methyldopa: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphates cautiously with methyldopa, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Methylergonovine: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and methylphenidate derivatives may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and methylphenidate increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death. If serotonin syndrome occurs, all serotonergic agents should be discontinued and appropriate medical management should be implemented.
    Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Methysergide: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Metoclopramide: (Moderate) Drugs with significant antimuscarinic activity, such as anticholinergics and antimuscarinics, may slow GI motility and thus may reduce the prokinetic actions of metoclopramide. Monitor patients for an increase in gastrointestinal complaints, such as reflux or constipation. Additive drowsiness may occur as well. The clinical significance is uncertain.
    Metolazone: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Milnacipran: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
    Mirtazapine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of mirtazapine, treatment initiation with mirtazapine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than mirtazapine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving mirtazapine and requiring urgent treatment with intravenous methylene blue, mirtazapine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of methylene blue outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Mirtazapine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and mirtazapine increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death. (Moderate) Mirtazapine exhibits weak anticholinergic activity that is not expected to be clinically significant. However, the anticholinergic effects may be additive to the antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that additive antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation.
    Molindone: (Moderate) Antipsychotics are associated with anticholinergic effects; therefore, additive effects may be seen during concurrent use of molindone and other drugs having anticholinergic activity such as antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other CNS effects may also occur.
    Mometasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); Methylene Blue injection may cause serious or fatal serotonergic syndrome when used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent MAOI. Whenever possible, a washout period should elapse between the use of the MAOI and Methylene Blue injection. Patients treated with Methylene Blue injection should be monitored for serotonin syndrome. If symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, discontinue use, and initiate supportive treatment. Inform patients of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome and advise them to not to take any serotonergic drugs within 72 hours after the last dose of Methylene Blue. If the IV use of Methylene Blue cannot be avoided, choose the lowest possible dose and closely observe the patient for CNS and serotonin-related effects for up to 4 hours after Methylene Blue is given.
    Morphine: (Contraindicated) Morphine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when morphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of morphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Contraindicated) Morphine use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when morphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of morphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Nabilone: (Moderate) Concurrent use of nabilone with anticholinergics may result in pronounced tachycardia and drowsiness.
    Nalbuphine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of nalbuphine in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when nalbuphine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of nalbuphine and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Nefazodone: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous methylene blue with nefazodone may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and nefazodone increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported with IV methylene blue given as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents like SSRIs, SNRIs, and clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death. For patients requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, it may be wise to discontinue nefazodone and monitor the patient until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue IV; nefazodone can then be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue.
    Neostigmine: (Major) The muscarinic actions of neostigmine can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of hyoscyamine.
    Netupitant, Fosnetupitant; Palonosetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering palonosetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as methylene blue. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue palonosetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Nitrofurantoin: (Moderate) Antimuscarinics can delay gastric emptying, possibly increasing the bioavailability of nitrofurantoin.
    Nortriptyline: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of nortriptyline, treatment initiation with nortriptyline is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than nortriptyline (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving nortriptyline and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, nortriptyline should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Nortriptyline may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when olanzapine and anticholinergics are used concomitantly; use with caution. Use of olanzapine and other drugs with anticholinergic activity can increase the risk for severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions related to hypomotility. Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic activity. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of fluoxetine, treatment initiation with fluoxetine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than fluoxetine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving fluoxetine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, fluoxetine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 5 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Fluoxetine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when olanzapine and anticholinergics are used concomitantly; use with caution. Use of olanzapine and other drugs with anticholinergic activity can increase the risk for severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions related to hypomotility. Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic activity. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when olanzapine and anticholinergics are used concomitantly; use with caution. Use of olanzapine and other drugs with anticholinergic activity can increase the risk for severe gastrointestinal adverse reactions related to hypomotility. Olanzapine exhibits anticholinergic activity. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the anticholinergic agent used.
    Oliceridine: (Moderate) If concomitant use of oliceridine and methylene blue is warranted, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oliceridine is used with hyoscyamine. Use of anticholinergics may increase the risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Olopatadine; Mometasone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Omeprazole; Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Ondansetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering ondansetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as methylene blue. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue ondansetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when hyoscyamine is used concomitantly with other drugs with moderate to significant anticholinergic effects including orphenadrine.
    Oxycodone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxycodone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxycodone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Oxymorphone: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of oxymorphone in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when oxymorphone is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of oxymorphone and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Ozanimod: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and drugs with selective MAOI activity, such as ozanimod, should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue ozanimod at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, taking into consideration the half-life of ozanimod. Because the metabolites of ozanimod inhibit primarily monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Palonosetron: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, use caution when administering palonosetron with other drugs that have serotonergic properties such as methylene blue. If serotonin syndrome is suspected, discontinue palonosetron and concurrent serotonergic agents and initiate appropriate medical treatment. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Paroxetine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of paroxetine, treatment initiation with paroxetine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than paroxetine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving paroxetine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, paroxetine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Paroxetine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. (Moderate) Of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibiting antidepressants (SSRIs), paroxetine is considered the most anticholinergic. Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when paroxetine is used concomitantly with anticholinergic agents. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the specific anticholinergic used.
    Pentazocine: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when pentazocine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of pentazocine and anticholinergic medications may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and pentazocine may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and pentazocine increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when pentazocine is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of pentazocine and anticholinergic medications may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and pentazocine may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and pentazocine increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Pergolide: (Moderate) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and ergot alkaloids may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and ergot alkaloids increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Perphenazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including perphenazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Contraindicated) Per the manufacturer, treatment initiation with amitriptyline is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than amitriptyline (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving amitriptyline and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, amitriptyline should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Amitriptyline may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including perphenazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Phenelzine: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); Methylene Blue injection may cause serious or fatal serotonergic syndrome when used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent MAOI. Whenever possible, a washout period should elapse between the use of the MAOI and Methylene Blue injection. Patients treated with Methylene Blue injection should be monitored for serotonin syndrome. If symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, discontinue use, and initiate supportive treatment. Inform patients of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome and advise them to not to take any serotonergic drugs within 72 hours after the last dose of Methylene Blue. If the IV use of Methylene Blue cannot be avoided, choose the lowest possible dose and closely observe the patient for CNS and serotonin-related effects for up to 4 hours after Methylene Blue is given.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Carbonic anhydrase inhibiting drugs, such as topiramate (a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Use caution if carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are administered with anticholinergics and monitor for excessive anticholinergic adverse effects. The use of topiramate with agents that may increase the risk for heat-related disorders, such as anticholinergics, may lead to oligohidrosis, hyperthermia and/or heat stroke.
    Physostigmine: (Major) The muscarinic actions of physostigmine can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of hyoscyamine.
    Porfimer: (Major) Avoid coadministration of porfimer with methylene blue due to the risk of increased photosensitivity. All patients treated with porfimer will be photosensitive. Concomitant use of other photosensitizing agents like methylene blue may increase the risk of a photosensitivity reaction.
    Potassium Bicarbonate: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as hyoscyamine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Potassium Chloride: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended. (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as hyoscyamine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Potassium Citrate: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Potassium Citrate; Citric Acid: (Major) The therapeutic action of methenamine requires an acidic urine. Alkalinizing agents, such as citrate salts, can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by increasing the amount of non-ionized drug available for renal tubular reabsorption. Increased urine alkalinity also can inhibit the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde, which is the active bacteriostatic form; concurrent use of methenamine and urinary alkalizers is not recommended.
    Pramlintide: (Major) Pramlintide therapy should not be considered in patients taking medications that alter gastric motility, such as anticholinergics. Pramlintide slows gastric emptying and the rate of nutrient delivery to the small intestine. Medications that have depressive effects on GI could potentiate the actions of pramlintide.
    Prednisolone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Prednisone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Probenecid; Colchicine: (Moderate) Colchicine is an alkaloid that is inhibited by acidifying agents. The colchicine dose may need adjustment
    Procainamide: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of procainamide may be significant and may be enhanced when combined with anticholinergics. Anticholinergic agents administered concurrently with procainamide may produce additive antivagal effects on AV nodal conduction, although this is not as well documented for procainamide as for quinidine.
    Procarbazine: (Major) Concurrent use of methylene blue and MAOIs or drugs that possess MAOI-like activity (e.g., procarbazine) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clompiramine. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Prochlorperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including prochlorperazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including promethazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Major) Because of the potential risk and severity of serotonin syndrome, coadministration of dextromethorphan and IV methylene blue should be avoided if possible. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) and may cause potentially fatal serotonin toxicity (serotonin syndrome) when combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Dextromethorphan increases central serotonin effects. If methylene blue is judged to be indicated, all SRIs, including dextromethorphan, must be ceased prior to treatment/procedure/surgery. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs. (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including promethazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including promethazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Proton pump inhibitors: (Moderate) The American College of Gastroenterology states that the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be theoretically decreased if given with other antisecretory agents (e.g., anticholinergics). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibit only actively secreting H+-pumps.
    Protriptyline: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer, treatment initiation with protriptyline is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than protriptyline (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving protriptyline and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, protriptyline should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Protriptyline may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Pyridostigmine: (Major) The muscarinic actions of pyridostigmine can antagonize the antimuscarinic actions of hyoscyamine.
    Pyrilamine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Pyrimethamine; Sulfadoxine: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) When administering systemic anticholinergics and quetiapine together, monitor for additive anticholinergic effects such as constipation, blurred vision, urinary retention, xerostomia, and tachycardia. Constipation is a commonly reported adverse effect of quetiapine and anticholinergic agents. Constipation in some cases may lead to ileus. Intestinal obstruction has been reported with quetiapine, including fatal cases in patients who were receiving multiple concomitant medications that decrease intestinal motility. Anticholinergic effects observed during therapeutic use of quetiapine are thought to be associated with norquetiapine, the active metabolite of quetiapine which has demonstrated a moderate to strong in vitro affinity for several muscarinic receptor subtypes.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Quinidine: (Major) Hyoscyamine may increase the absorption of quinidine by decreasing GI motility and thereby enhancing absorption with possible toxicity. Increased monitoring is advised in patients receiving a combination of these drugs.
    Rasagiline: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as rasagiline should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because rasagiline is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents. (Moderate) MAOIs exhibit secondary anticholinergic actions. Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when MAOIs are used concomitantly with antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive CNS effects are also possible when many of these drugs are combined with MAOIs.
    Remifentanil: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of remifentanil in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when remifentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of remifentanil and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Revefenacin: (Moderate) Although revefenacin is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, there is the potential for additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinics. Avoid concomitant administration with other anticholinergic and antimucarinic medications.
    Rivastigmine: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of rivastigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Safinamide: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as safinamide should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Salsalate: (Moderate) Acidification of the urine may increase serum concentrations of salicylates by increasing tubular reabsorption of salicylates, however, this interaction is not likely to be clinically significant since the urine is normally acidic.
    Secretin: (Major) Discontinue anticholinergic medications at least 5 half-lives before administering secretin. Patients who are receiving anticholinergics at the time of stimulation testing may be hyporesponsive to secretin stimulation and produce a false result. Consider additional testing and clinical assessments for aid in diagnosis.
    Sedating H1-blockers: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Selegiline: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as selegiline should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of selegiline. Because selegiline is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
    Serotonin-Receptor Agonists: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin-receptor agonists may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and serotonin-receptor agonists increase central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Sertraline: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of sertraline, treatment initiation with sertraline is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than sertraline (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving sertraline and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, sertraline should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Sertraline may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements. During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Sibutramine: (Major) Theoretically, concurrent use of methylene blue and sibutramine may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and sibutramine increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by anticholinergics. False study results are possible in patients with drug-induced hyper- or hypo-responsiveness; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of procedure results.
    Sodium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Antacids may inhibit the oral absorption of antimuscarinics. Simultaneous oral administration should be avoided when feasible; separate dosing by at least 2 hours to limit an interaction.
    Sodium Sulfate; Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Use anticholinergics, such as hyoscyamine, and concomitant solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride with caution due to risk for gastrointestinal mucosal injury. Anticholinergics may decrease gastric motility and increase the transit time of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride leading to prolonged contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with antimuscarinic properties like solifenacin are used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics. Blurred vision and dry mouth would be common effects. Clinicians should note that additive antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and St. John's Wort, hypericum perforatum should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and St. John's Wort increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving St. John's Wort, it is advisable to discontinue the St. John's Wort and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to stop the St. John's Wort for at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment.
    Sufentanil: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of sufentanil in patients receiving methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping treatment with methylene blue due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity, including respiratory depression. If cannot avoid use, choose the lowest possible methylene blue dose and observe the patient closely for up to 4 hours after administration. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when sufentanil is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of sufentanil and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Sulfadiazine: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly.
    Sulfasalazine: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly.
    Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly.
    Sulfonamides: (Major) Sulfonamides can crystallize in an acidic urine. Because methenamine salts produce an acidic urine, these agents should not be used concomitantly.
    Tacrine: (Moderate) The therapeutic benefits of tacrine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, may be diminished during chronic co-administration with antimuscarinics or medications with potent anticholinergic activity. When concurrent use is not avoidable, the patient should be monitored for cognitive decline and anticholinergic side effects. Clinicians should generally avoid multiple medications with anticholinergic activity in the patient with dementia. Some of the common selective antimuscarinic drugs for bladder problems, (such as oxybutynin, darifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, tolerodine, or solifenacin), do not routinely cause problems with medications used for dementia, but may cause anticholinergic side effects in some patients. Atropine may be used to offset bradycardia in cholinesterase inhibitor overdose.
    Tapentadol: (Contraindicated) Tapentadol use in patients taking methylene blue or within 14 days of stopping such treatment is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of another opioid to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression. (Moderate) Tapentadol should be used cautiously with anticholinergic medications since additive depressive effects on GI motility or bladder function may occur. Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect. Opiate analgesics combined with antimuscarinics can cause severe constipation or paralytic ileus, especially with chronic use. Additive CNS effects like drowsiness or dizziness may also occur.
    Tegaserod: (Major) Drugs that exert significant anticholinergic properties such as antimuscarinics may pharmacodynamically oppose the effects of prokinetic agents such as tegaserod. Avoid administering antimuscarinics along with tegaserod under most circumstances. Inhaled respiratory antimuscarinics, such as ipratropium, are unlikely to interact with tegaserod. Ophthalmic anticholinergics may interact if sufficient systemic absorption of the eye medication occurs.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Tenapanor: (Moderate) Anticholinergics can promote constipation and pharmacodynamically oppose the action of drugs used for the treatment of constipation or constipation-associated irritable bowel syndrome, such as tenapanor.
    Thiazide diuretics: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde. (Minor) Coadministration of thiazides and antimuscarinics (e.g., atropine and biperiden) may result in increased bioavailability of the thiazide. This is apparently a result of a decrease in gastrointestinal motility and rate of stomach emptying by the antimuscarinic agent. In addition, diuretics can increase urinary frequency, which may aggravate bladder symptoms.
    Thioridazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when drugs with anticholinergic properties like thioridazine are used concomitantly with anticholinergic agents. Adverse effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the CNS, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur, depending on the interacting agent.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Anticholinergics may have additive effects with thiothixene, an antipsychotic with the potential for anticholinergic activity. Monitor for anticholinergic-related adverse effects such as xerostomia, blurred vision, constipation, and urinary retention during concurrent use.
    Tiotropium: (Moderate) Although tiotropium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, tiotropium may have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinics. Per the manufacturer, avoid concomitant administration of tiotropium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Tiotropium; Olodaterol: (Moderate) Although tiotropium is minimally absorbed into the systemic circulation after inhalation, tiotropium may have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other antimuscarinics. Per the manufacturer, avoid concomitant administration of tiotropium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when tolterodine is used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics. When possible, avoid concurrent use, especially in the elderly, who are more susceptible to the anticholinergic effects. Consider alternatives to these other medications, if available. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on bladder smooth muscle, but also on GI function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Blurred vision, constipation, and dry mouth may be more prominent additive effects. With many of the listed agents, additive drowsiness may also occur when combined.
    Topiramate: (Moderate) Carbonic anhydrase inhibiting drugs, such as topiramate (a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) can alkalinize the urine, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting the conversion of methenamine to formaldehyde. (Moderate) Use caution if carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are administered with anticholinergics and monitor for excessive anticholinergic adverse effects. The use of topiramate with agents that may increase the risk for heat-related disorders, such as anticholinergics, may lead to oligohidrosis, hyperthermia and/or heat stroke.
    Tramadol: (Contraindicated) Tramadol use is contraindicated in patients who are receiving or who have received monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) within the previous 14 days. Methylene blue is a reversible inhibitor of MAO. Concomitant use of tramadol with other serotonergic drugs such as MAOIs may result in serious adverse effects including serotonin syndrome or seizures. MAOIs may cause additive CNS depression, respiratory depression, drowsiness, dizziness, or hypotension when used with opiate agonists such as tramadol. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when tramadol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of tramadol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Contraindicated) Tramadol use is contraindicated in patients who are receiving or who have received monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) within the previous 14 days. Methylene blue is a reversible inhibitor of MAO. Concomitant use of tramadol with other serotonergic drugs such as MAOIs may result in serious adverse effects including serotonin syndrome or seizures. MAOIs may cause additive CNS depression, respiratory depression, drowsiness, dizziness, or hypotension when used with opiate agonists such as tramadol. (Moderate) Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when tramadol is used concomitantly with an anticholinergic drug. The concomitant use of tramadol and anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Opiates increase the tone and decrease the propulsive contractions of the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Prolongation of the gastrointestinal transit time may be the mechanism of the constipating effect.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs); Methylene Blue injection may cause serious or fatal serotonergic syndrome when used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Methylene blue has been demonstrated to be a potent MAOI. Whenever possible, a washout period should elapse between the use of the MAOI and Methylene Blue injection. Patients treated with Methylene Blue injection should be monitored for serotonin syndrome. If symptoms of serotonin syndrome occur, discontinue use, and initiate supportive treatment. Inform patients of the increased risk of serotonin syndrome and advise them to not to take any serotonergic drugs within 72 hours after the last dose of Methylene Blue. If the IV use of Methylene Blue cannot be avoided, choose the lowest possible dose and closely observe the patient for CNS and serotonin-related effects for up to 4 hours after Methylene Blue is given.
    Trazodone: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of trazodone, treatment initiation with trazodone is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than trazodone (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving trazodone and requiring urgent treatment with intravenous methylene blue, trazodone should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of methylene blue outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Trazodone may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and trazodone increases central serotonin effects. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving intravenous methylene blue with other serotonergic psychiatric agents are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Use sodium phosphate cautiously with corticosteroids, especially mineralocorticoids or corticotropin, ACTH, as concurrent use can cause hypernatremia.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Moderate) Depending on the specific agent, additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are used concomitantly with other anticholinergics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive CNS effects are also possible when many of these drugs are combined with tricyclic antidepressants.
    Trientine: (Major) In general, oral mineral supplements should not be given since they may block the oral absorption of trientine. However, iron deficiency may develop, especially in children and menstruating or pregnant women, or as a result of the low copper diet recommended for Wilson's disease. If necessary, iron may be given in short courses, but since iron and trientine each inhibit oral absorption of the other, 2 hours should elapse between administration of trientine and iron doses.
    Trifluoperazine: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when anticholinergics are used concomitantly with phenothiazines, including trifluoperazine. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects may be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness or other additive CNS effects may also occur.
    Trimethobenzamide: (Moderate) Trimethobenzamide has CNS depressant effects and may cause drowsiness. The concurrent use of trimethobenzamide with other medications that cause CNS depression, like the anticholinergics, may potentiate the effects of either trimethobenzamide or the anticholinergic.
    Trimipramine: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer, treatment initiation with trimipramine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than trimipramine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving trimipramine and requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, trimipramine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Trimipramine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent, in patients receiving serotonergic agents. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with IV methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma.
    Triprolidine: (Moderate) The anticholinergic effects of sedating H1-blockers may be enhanced when combined with other antimuscarinics. Clinicians should note that anticholinergic effects might be seen not only on GI smooth muscle, but also on bladder function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Additive drowsiness may also occur when antimuscarinics are combined with sedating antihistamines.
    Trospium: (Moderate) Additive anticholinergic effects may be seen when trospium is used concomitantly with other antimuscarinics. When possible, avoid concurrent use, especially in the elderly, who are more susceptible to the anticholinergic effects. Consider alternatives to these other medications, if available. Clinicians should note that antimuscarinic effects might be seen not only on bladder smooth muscle, but also on GI function, the eye, and temperature regulation. Blurred vision, constipation, and dry mouth may be more prominent additive effects. With many of the listed agents, additive drowsiness may also occur when combined with trospium.
    Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and dietary supplements of tryptophan should be avoided if possible due to a risk for serotonin syndrome. Although the mechanism is not clearly understood, literature reports suggest inhibition of MAO by methylene blue may be involved in increasing a risk for serotonin syndrome when methylene blue is combined with serotonergic agents. Tryptophan is a serotonin precursor. If co-use of methylene blue and a serotonergic agent cannot be avoided, choose the lowest possible dose and monitor the patient for CNS effects for up to 4 hours after administration of IV methylene blue.
    Umeclidinium: (Moderate) There is the potential for umeclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of umeclidinium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) There is the potential for umeclidinium to have additive anticholinergic effects when administered with other anticholinergics or antimuscarinics. Per the manufaturer, avoid concomitant administration of umeclidinium with other anticholinergic medications when possible.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Thiazide diuretics may cause the urine to become alkaline. This may reduce the effectiveness of methenamine by inhibiting its conversion to formaldehyde.
    Venlafaxine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of methylene blue and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine, desvenlafaxine, milnacipran) should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with serotonergic agents such as SNRIs may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SNRIs, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case report suggests that serotonin toxicity may have occurred post-operatively following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue in a patient receiving duloxetine. The patient experienced disorientation, a mildly elevated temperature, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, mild agitation, and nystagmus. In a separate case, a patient who had been receiving venlafaxine developed expressive aphasia, confusion, and disinhibition following a methylene blue infusion. The authors concluded that methylene blue toxicity had occurred; however, they did not exclude the possibility of a drug interaction based upon previous reports of an interaction between injectable methylene blue and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), hyperreflexia, seizures, and coma. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an SNRI, the SNRI must be stopped immediately and the patient should be monitored for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, the SNRI should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the SNRI being discontinued.
    Verteporfin: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of verteporfin with methylene blue is necessary due to the risk of increased photosensitivity. Verteporfin is a light-activated drug used in photodynamic therapy; all patients treated with verteporfin will be photosensitive. Concomitant use of other photosensitizing agents like methylene blue may increase the risk of a photosensitivity reaction.
    Vibegron: (Moderate) Vibegron should be administered with caution in patients taking anticholinergics because of potential for an increased risk of urinary retention. Monitor for symptoms of urinary difficulties or urinary retention. Patients may note constipation or dry mouth with use of these drugs together.
    Vilazodone: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of vilazodone, treatment initiation with vilazodone is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous (IV) methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than vilazodone (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients requiring urgent treatment with IV methylene blue, vilazodone should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 2 weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Vilazodone may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A) and vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and partial 5-HT1 agonist. Concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving serotonin-augmenting agents. It is not known if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. Published interaction reports between IV methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and/or coma. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of various symptoms such as hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, hyperhidrosis, incoordination, diarrhea, mental status changes (e.g., confusion, delirium, or coma), and in rare cases, death. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
    Vortioxetine: (Contraindicated) Treatment initiation with vortioxetine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving intravenous methylene blue due to an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. If urgent psychiatric treatment is required, interventions other than vortioxetine (e.g., alternative medication, hospitalization) should be considered. Conversely, in patients receiving vortioxetine and requiring urgent treatment with intravenous methylene blue, vortioxetine should be discontinued immediately and methylene blue therapy initiated only if acceptable alternatives are not available and the potential benefits of methylene blue outweigh the risks. The patient should be monitored for serotonin syndrome for 21 days or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. Vortioxetine may be re-initiated 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue. Results from an in vitro study indicate that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of the monoamine oxidase type A enzyme (MAO-A). MAO-A is responsible for the metabolism of serotonin; therefore, concurrent use of an MAO-A inhibitor with a serotonergic agent may result in a clinically significant interaction. Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of standard infusions of methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in parathyroid surgery, in patients receiving SSRIs, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or clomipramine. It is not known if patients receiving other serotonergic psychiatric agents with intravenous methylene blue are at a comparable risk or if methylene blue administered by other routes (e.g., orally, local injection) or in doses less than 1 mg/kg IV can produce a similar outcome. One case describes a patient receiving citalopram who experienced agitation, restlessness, pupil dilation with sluggish response to light, myoclonic movements of the lower limbs, and brisk reflexes following an infusion of methylene blue, while another patient receiving paroxetine developed tachycardia, agitation, dystonia and abnormal eye movements During a retrospective study of 193 surgical patients who had received a methylene blue injection, it was found that all 12 of the patients who experienced postoperative neurological sequelae had been taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor preoperatively. One of the 12 patients experienced cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Of the remaining 181 patients who did not experience neurological sequelae, 8.8% were taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Published interaction reports between intravenously administered methylene blue and serotonergic psychiatric agents have documented symptoms including lethargy, confusion, delirium, agitation, aggression, obtundation, myoclonus, expressive aphasia, hypertonia, pyrexia, elevated blood pressure, seizures, and coma. Signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome include fever, diaphoresis, shivering, myoclonus, tremor, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, headache, incoordination, mental status changes (e.g., agitation, confusion), and hyperreflexia.
    Zonisamide: (Moderate) Zonisamide use is associated with case reports of decreased sweating, hyperthermia, heat intolerance, or heat stroke and should be used with caution in combination with other drugs that may also predispose patients to heat-related disorders like anticholinergics.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Methenamine (small amounts) and traces of hyoscyamine are excreted in breast milk. Use with caution since anticholinergic medications like hyoscyamine have been reported to diminish lactation; although, the manufacturer states that problems in humans related to lactation and breast-feeding have not been documented with this product. Alternatives may include methenamine monotherapy or the use of methenamine; sodium phosphate products which do not contain hyoscyamine or methylene blue. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    The rationale for prophylactic use of these combination products is that they inhibit bacterial growth and reduce spasmodic actions, relieving discomfort and reducing bacteriuria.
    Methenamine: Methenamine is hydrolyzed to formaldehyde in an acidic environment. Greater amounts of formaldehyde are produced as urine pH decreases. Formaldehyde is bactericidal. Due to the nonspecific bactericidal activity of formaldehyde, bacterial resistance does not usually develop. However, urea splitting strains of bacteria may raise the pH in the urine so that sufficient formaldehyde is not produced.
    Sodium acid phosphate: This drug produces the acidic pH in the urine, providing the environment needed for methenamine action.
    Methylene blue: Produces weak antiseptic properties.
    Hyoscyamine: An alkaloid of belladonna and a parasympatholytic drug, it relaxes smooth muscle for antispasmodic effect on the urinary system. Produces anticholinergic activity.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Methenamine; sodium acid phosphate; methylene blue; hyoscyamine combinations are administered orally.
    Methenamine: Following oral administration, methenamine is well absorbed from the GI tract, regardless of the salt used. Some intragastric hydrolysis to formaldehyde and ammonia occurs in the stomach, so many, but not all, commercial preparations of methenamine are enteric-coated. Plasma concentrations of either methenamine or formaldehyde are generally low due to the higher pH of plasma relative to urine. The drug crosses the placenta and is excreted into breast milk. Renal excretion is via tubular secretion and glomerular filtration. Peak concentrations of formaldehyde are achieved in the urine within about 2 hours following oral dosage. Steady-state urine concentrations are reached in 2 to 3 days. About 90% of a single dose is excreted via the urine within 24 hours.
    Sodium acid phosphate: Excreted primarily in the urine to alkalinize the urine.
    Methylene blue: Well absorbed from the GI tract and rapidly reduced to leukomethylene blue in the tissues; 75% is excreted unchanged. Leukomethylene blue is colorless, but when the urine is exposed to air, it is oxidized to methylene azure and the urine turns green or blue. Some fecal excretion and color discoloration also occurs.
    Hyoscyamine: Following oral administration, hyoscyamine is well absorbed from the GI tract and is widely distributed. Protein binding is moderate. It is metabolized hepatically. Most of a dose is excreted in the urine within 12 hours, with 13% to 50% being unchanged drug.