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  • CLASSES

    Agents for Amoebiasis and Other Protozoal Diseases
    Anaerobicides
    Antiinfectives for Treatment of Acne
    Bulk Agents for Compounding
    Compounding Kits Miscellaneous
    Gynecological Antibiotics and Sulfonamides
    Imidazole Derivative Antibiotics
    Topical Rosacea Agents

    BOXED WARNING

    New primary malignancy

    Metronidazole, when given systemically, has been reported to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Similar studies in the hamster gave negative results. Also, metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in a number of in vitro assay systems, but studies in mammals (in vivo) failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage. Human data are not available to describe the risk of a new primary malignancy secondary to use. The boxed warning states that systemic metronidazole use should be reserved for conditions where the drug is clearly needed; avoid unnecessary use. Vaginal and topical forms of metronidazole do not carry the boxed warning regarding carcinogenicity.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral/parenteral/topical/vaginal synthetic nitroimidazole; antibacterial and antiprotozoal
    Used for anaerobic bacterial infections and protozoal infections such as trichomoniasis, amebiasis, and giardiasis
    Associated with neurotoxicity

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    First-Metronidazole 100, First-Metronidazole 50, Flagyl, Flagyl ER, Flagyl RTU, MetroCream, MetroGel, MetroGel Vaginal, MetroGel-Vaginal, MetroLotion, Noritate, NUVESSA, Nydamax, Rosadan, Vandazole, Vitazol

    HOW SUPPLIED

    First-Metronidazole 100/First-Metronidazole 50 Oral Pwd F/Recon: 7.5g, 15g
    Flagyl ER Oral Tab ER: 750mg
    Flagyl RTU/Metronidazole Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 5mg
    Flagyl/Metronidazole Oral Cap: 375mg
    Flagyl/Metronidazole Oral Tab: 250mg, 500mg
    MetroCream/Metronidazole/Noritate/Rosadan/Vitazol Topical Cream: 0.75%, 1%
    MetroGel/MetroGel Vaginal/MetroGel-Vaginal/Metronidazole/NUVESSA/Vandazole Vaginal Gel: 0.75%, 1.3%
    MetroGel/Metronidazole/Nydamax Topical Gel: 0.75%, 1%
    MetroLotion/Metronidazole Topical Lotion: 0.75%

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of trichomoniasis.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    2 g PO as a single dose, or alternatively, 500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days is recommended by the CDC. HIV-infected patients should receive the 7-day course. The FDA-approved dosage is 375 mg PO twice daily or 250 mg PO 3 times daily for 7 days. The CDC states that the 2 g dose is safe during all stages of pregnancy although the FDA-approved labeling recommends against use in the first trimester. If repeat courses are necessary, the FDA-approved labeling recommends an interval of 4 to 6 weeks between courses and that appropriate laboratory tests reconfirm presence of infection. If treatment failure occurs with the single 2 g dose, the CDC recommends retreatment with 500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days. If this regimen fails, consider treatment with 2 g PO for 7 days. For male partners of women with treatment failures, use the same treatment regimen as the patient.

    Children weighing 45 kg or more† and Adolescents†

    2 g PO as a single dose is recommended by the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Alternatively, 500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days is recommended by the CDC. HIV-infected patients should receive the 7-day course. If treatment failure occurs with the single 2 g dose, the CDC recommends retreatment with 500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days. If this regimen fails, consider treatment with 2 g PO for 7 days. For male partners of women with treatment failures, use the same treatment regimen as the patient.

    Children weighing less than 45 kg†

    45 mg/kg/day PO in 3 divided doses for 7 days is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

    For the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
    Vaginal dosage (0.75% gel)
    Adult females

    1 applicatorful (5 g of 0.75% metronidazole gel) intravaginally once daily for 5 days as an option is recommended by the CDC. The FDA-approved dosage is 1 applicatorful intravaginally 1 to 2 times daily for 5 days, depending on the product used. For once daily dosing, administer at bedtime. In patients with multiple recurrences, metronidazole gel administered twice weekly for 4 to 6 months has been shown to reduce recurrences, but the benefit may not persist when therapy is stopped. Limited data suggest that an oral nitroimidazole followed by intravaginal boric acid with suppressive metronidazole gel may be an option for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

    Adolescent females (post-menarchal)

    1 applicatorful (5 g of 0.75% metronidazole gel) intravaginally once daily for 5 days; administer at bedtime. In patients with multiple recurrences, metronidazole gel administered twice weekly for 4 to 6 months has been shown to reduce recurrences, but the benefit may not persist when therapy is stopped. Limited data suggest that an oral nitroimidazole followed by intravaginal boric acid with suppressive metronidazole gel may be an option for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

    Vaginal dosage (1.3% gel)
    Adult females

    1 applicatorful (5 g of 1.3% gel containing 65 mg of metronidazole) intravaginally as a single dose at bedtime.

    Adolescent females 12 to 17 years

    1 applicatorful (5 g of 1.3% gel containing 65 mg of metronidazole) intravaginally as a single dose at bedtime.

    Oral dosage (regular-release)†
    Adult females

    500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days is recommended by the CDC. For patients with multiple recurrences, limited data suggest that an oral nitroimidazole, such as metronidazole 500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days followed by intravaginal boric acid with suppressive metronidazole gel may be an option. Monthly oral metronidazole 2 g PO with fluconazole has been evaluated as suppressive therapy.

    Female Children weighing 45 kg or more and Adolescent females

    500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days is recommended by the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). For patients with multiple recurrences, limited data suggest that an oral nitroimidazole, such as metronidazole 500 mg PO twice daily for 7 days, followed by intravaginal boric acid with suppressive metronidazole gel may be an option. Monthly oral metronidazole 2 g PO with fluconazole has been evaluated as suppressive therapy.

    Female Children weighing less than 45 kg

    45 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses for 7 days is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

    Oral dosage (extended-release tablet)
    Adult females

    750 mg PO once daily for 7 days. The CDC recommends the extended-release as an alternative regimen.

    For the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), including tubo-ovarian abscess.
    Oral dosage
    Adults females

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with doxycycline for 14 days and either single dose ceftriaxone IM, cefoxitin IM plus probenecid, or other parenteral third generation cephalosporin is recommended by the CDC for patients with mild-to-moderate PID. Patients who do not respond to oral therapy within 72 hours should be switched to parenteral therapy. If tubo-ovarian abscess is present, oral metronidazole should be used with oral doxycycline as part of a 14-day course of stepdown therapy following IV therapy. For patients with cephalosporin allergy, if the community prevalence and individual risk of gonorrhea are low, and if follow-up is assured, metronidazole in combination with a fluoroquinolone for 14 days may be considered.

    Adolescent females†

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with doxycycline for 14 days and either single dose ceftriaxone IM, cefoxitin IM plus probenecid, or other parenteral third generation cephalosporin is recommended by the CDC for patients with mild-to-moderate PID. Patients who do not respond to oral therapy within 72 hours should be switched to parenteral therapy. If tubo-ovarian abscess is present, oral metronidazole should be used with oral doxycycline as part of a 14-day course of stepdown therapy following IV therapy. For patients with cephalosporin allergy, if the community prevalence and individual risk of gonorrhea are low, and if follow-up is assured, metronidazole in combination with a fluoroquinolone for 14 days may be considered.

    For the treatment of amebiasis (amebic dysentery) and amebic hepatic abscess.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 or 750 mg PO every 8 hours for 5 to 10 days.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    35 to 50 mg/kg/day (Max: 2,250 mg/day) PO divided every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days.

    Intravenous dosage†
    Adults

    750 mg IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days for severe intestinal or extraintestinal disease.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    35 to 50 mg/kg/day (Max: 2,250 mg/day) IV divided every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days for severe intestinal or extraintestinal disease.

    For the treatment of serious anaerobic infections (e.g., skin and skin structure infections [e.g. diabetic foot ulcer], CNS infection including meningitis and brain abscess, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, bacteremia, and gynecologic infections [e.g. endometritis, endomyometritis]).
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day). Although metronidazole has traditionally been dosed as multiple-daily dosing, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in adults have demonstrated that once daily dosing (1 to 1.5 g every 24 hours) is similar in efficacy to multiple-daily dosing and offers an advantageous dosing strategy. It has been suggested that metronidazole displays concentration-dependent killing, and the goal of dosing regimens for these agents is to maximize the concentration (peak/MIC or peak/AUC ratios), which once-daily dosing does.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    22.5 to 40 mg/kg/day IV divided every 6 to 8 hours (Usual Max: 500 mg/dose). The maximum recommended dose in adults is 4 g/day. Although metronidazole has traditionally been dosed as multiple-daily dosing, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in adults have demonstrated that once daily dosing (1 to 1.5 g every 24 hours) is similar in efficacy to multiple-daily dosing and offers an advantageous dosing strategy. It has been suggested that metronidazole displays concentration-dependent killing, and the goal of dosing regimens for these agents is to maximize the concentration (peak/MIC or peak/AUC ratios), which once-daily dosing does.

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 10 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger†

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 12 hours.

    Oral dosage
    Adults

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day). Duration of therapy is usually 7 to 10 days; however, bone and joint and endocardium infections may require longer treatment.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    15 to 50 mg/kg/day PO divided every 8 hours (Max: 2,250 mg/day).

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    10 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours. Although PO dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours. Although PO dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 12 hours. Although PO dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    For the treatment of acne rosacea.
    Topical dosage (0.75% Gel, Cream, or Lotion)
    Adults

    Apply thin film of 0.75% metronidazole topical cream, gel, or lotion to the cleansed, affected areas twice daily in the morning and evening. Once response occurs, adjust frequency and duration of therapy according to severity of disease.

    Topical dosage (1% Gel or Cream)
    Adults

    Apply and rub in a thin film of 1% metronidazole gel or cream once daily to the cleansed, affected area(s).

    For the treatment of serious anaerobic lower respiratory tract infections, including pleural empyema, pneumonia, and lung abscess.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day). Use metronidazole in combination with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin for community-acquired empyema or with vancomycin and cefepime for hospital-acquired or postprocedural empyema. Treat for a minimum of 2 weeks after drainage and defervescence. Although metronidazole has traditionally been dosed as multiple-daily dosing, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in adults have demonstrated that once daily dosing (1 to 1.5 g every 24 hours) is similar in efficacy to multiple-daily dosing and offers an advantageous dosing strategy. It has been suggested that metronidazole displays concentration-dependent killing, and the goal of dosing regimens for these agents is to maximize the concentration (peak/MIC or peak/AUC ratios), which once-daily dosing does.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    22.5 to 40 mg/kg/day IV divided every 6 to 8 hours (Usual Max: 500 mg/dose). The maximum recommended dose in adults is 4 g/day. Although metronidazole has traditionally been dosed as multiple-daily dosing, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies in adults have demonstrated that once daily dosing (1 to 1.5 g every 24 hours) is similar in efficacy to multiple-daily dosing and offers an advantageous dosing strategy. It has been suggested that metronidazole displays concentration-dependent killing, and the goal of dosing regimens for these agents is to maximize the concentration (peak/MIC or peak/AUC ratios), which once-daily dosing does.

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 10 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger†

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 12 hours.

    Oral dosage
    Adults

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day). Use metronidazole in combination with a second- or third-generation cephalosporin for community-acquired empyema or with vancomycin and cefepime for hospital-acquired or postprocedural empyema. Treatment for a minimum of 2 weeks after drainage and defervescence.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    15 to 50 mg/kg/day PO divided every 8 hours (Max: 2,250 mg/day).

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    10 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours. Although oral dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete, and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours. Although oral dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete, and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 12 hours. Although oral dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete, and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    For bacterial vaginosis prophylaxis† or trichomoniasis prophylaxis† in victims of sexual assault.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    2 g PO as a single dose in combination with ceftriaxone plus azithromycin (for gonorrhea and chlamydia prophylaxis) is recommended by the CDC.

    Adolescents

    2 g PO as a single dose in combination with ceftriaxone plus azithromycin (for gonorrhea and chlamydia prophylaxis) is recommended by the CDC.

    For the treatment of recurrent and persistent non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU)†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    2 g PO as a single dose for males who have sex with females in areas where T. vaginalis is prevalent.

    For the treatment of dental infection† or dentoalveolar infection†, including periodontitis†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    250 mg PO 3 or 4 times daily for 10 days or 500 mg PO 3 times daily for 8 days has been recommended. For severe periodontitis, 250 mg PO 3 times daily with amoxicillin for 7 to 10 days has been used. For refractory disease in patients with beta-lactam allergy, 500 mg PO twice daily with ciprofloxacin for 8 days.

    Adolescents 16 years and older

    250 mg PO 3 or 4 times daily for 10 days or 500 mg PO 3 times daily for 8 days has been recommended. For severe periodontitis, 250 mg PO 3 times daily with amoxicillin for 7 to 10 days has been used.

    For surgical infection prophylaxis, including bowel preparation† in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.
    For bowel preparation† in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    1 g PO in combination with neomycin for 3 doses given over 10 hours beginning the afternoon and evening prior to the surgery. Intravenous antibmicrobial prophylaxis should also be given prior to the surgical incision.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    15 mg/kg/dose (Max: 1 g/dose) PO in combination with neomycin for 3 doses given over 10 hours beginning the afternoon and evening prior to the surgery. Intravenous antibmicrobial prophylaxis should also be given prior to the surgical incision.

    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    500 mg IV or alternately, 15 mg/kg IV, as a single dose within 60 minutes prior to the surgical incision, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 6 hours for 2 doses.[36054] [36894] [53477] No intraoperative redosing and a duration of prophylaxis less than 24 hours for most procedures are recommended by guidelines.[53477] Metronidazole is FDA-approved for elective, contaminated or potentially contaminated colorectal surgery.[36894] Guidelines recommend metronidazole in combination with cefazolin for uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, and clean-contaminated head and neck or urologic procedures or in combination with cefazolin or ceftriaxone for colorectal procedures.[53477] Metronidazole is also recommended in combination with an aminoglycoside or fluoroquinolone as alternate therapy in patients with beta-lactam allergy for biliary tract, uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, colorectal, hysterectomy, or clean-contaminated urologic procedures.[36054] [53477]

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    15 mg/kg IV as a single dose (Max: 500 mg/dose) within 60 minutes prior to the surgical incision. No intraoperative redosing and a duration of prophylaxis less than 24 hours for most procedures are recommended by guidelines. Guidelines recommend metronidazole in combination with cefazolin for uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, and clean-contaminated head and neck or urologic procedures or in combination with cefazolin or ceftriaxone for colorectal procedures. Metronidazole is also recommended in combination with an aminoglycoside or fluoroquinolone as alternate therapy in patients with beta-lactam allergy for biliary tract, uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, colorectal, or clean-contaminated urologic procedures.[53477]

    Neonates weighing 1.2 kg or more†

    15 mg/kg IV as a single dose (Max: 500 mg/dose) within 60 minutes prior to the surgical incision. No intraoperative redosing and a duration of prophylaxis less than 24 hours for most procedures are recommended by guidelines. Guidelines recommend metronidazole in combination with cefazolin for uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, and clean-contaminated head and neck or urologic procedures or in combination with cefazolin or ceftriaxone for colorectal procedures. Metronidazole is also recommended in combination with an aminoglycoside or fluoroquinolone as alternate therapy in patients with beta-lactam allergy for biliary tract, uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, colorectal, or clean-contaminated urologic procedures.

    Premature Neonates weighing less than 1.2 kg†

    7.5 mg/kg IV as a single dose within 60 minutes prior to the surgical incision. No intraoperative redosing and a duration of prophylaxis less than 24 hours for most procedures are recommended by guidelines. Guidelines recommend metronidazole in combination with cefazolin for uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, and clean-contaminated head and neck or urologic procedures or in combination with cefazolin or ceftriaxone for colorectal procedures. Metronidazole is also recommended in combination with an aminoglycoside or fluoroquinolone as alternate therapy in patients with beta-lactam allergy for biliary tract, uncomplicated appendectomy, obstructed small intestine, colorectal, or clean-contaminated urologic procedures.[53477]

    Oral dosage†
    Adults

    500 mg PO twice daily for 5 days for induced abortion/dilation and evacuation procedures.

    For the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis† due to C. difficile infection†.
    For the treatment of non-severe initial episode of pseudomembranous colitis† due to C. difficile infection†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO 3 times daily for 10 days as an alternative.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    7.5 mg/kg/dose (Max: 500 mg/dose) PO every 6 to 8 hours for 10 days as first-line therapy.

    For the treatment of fulminant initial episode of pseudomembranous colitis† due to C. difficile infection†.
    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    500 mg IV every 8 hours plus vancomycin.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    7.5 mg/kg/dose (Max: 500 mg/dose) IV every 6 to 8 hours for 10 days plus vancomycin.

    For the treatment of non-severe first recurrence of pseudomembranous colitis† due to C. difficile infection†.
    Oral dosage
    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    7.5 mg/kg/dose (Max: 500 mg/dose) PO every 6 to 8 hours for 10 days as first-line therapy.

    For the treatment of Crohn's disease† associated with colonic and/or perianal involvement.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    1,000 to 1,500 mg/day PO in 2 to 4 divided doses. In some patients, higher doses (up to 20 mg/kg/day) may be needed for the treatment of perianal disease. The American College of Gastroenterology states that metronidazole may be effective and strongly recommends that it be considered in treating simple perianal fistulas.

    Children and Adolescents

    15 to 20 mg/kg/day PO in 2 to 3 divided doses based on limited data in pediatric patients. In adult studies of patients with Crohn's disease, usual doses have ranged from 1,000 to 1,500 mg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses. Metronidazole, in combination with ciprofloxacin or azithromycin, has been shown to improve the clinical symptoms of Crohn's disease and may be effective in inducing remission in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication†.
    As part of clarithromycin-based initial therapy in adults with or without potential macrolide exposure or resistance.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO twice daily as part of a combination therapy as a first-line treatment option. Quadruple therapy includes metronidazole in combination with clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 10 to 14 days. Hybrid therapy includes amoxicillin plus a PPI for 7 days followed by metronidazole in combination with clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a PPI for 7 days. Sequential therapy may begin after 5 to 7 days of amoxicillin and a PPI as metronidazole in combination with clarithromycin and a PPI for 5 to 7 days.

    As part of clarithromycin-based initial therapy in adults without previous macrolide exposure in regions where clarithromycin resistance is less than 15%.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO 3 times daily in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor for 14 days as a first-line treatment option.

    In combination with amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in pediatric patients.
    Oral dosage
    Children and Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Triple therapy with standard-dose amoxicillin, metronidazole, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with known susceptibility to metronidazole and resistance to clarithromycin. Triple therapy with high-dose amoxicillin, metronidazole, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole or strains with unknown susceptibility.

    Children and Adolescents weighing 25 to 34 kg

    500 mg PO in the morning and 250 mg PO in the evening (tablets) OR 375 mg PO twice daily (oral suspension) in combination with amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Triple therapy with standard-dose amoxicillin, metronidazole, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with known susceptibility to metronidazole and resistance to clarithromycin. Triple therapy with high-dose amoxicillin, metronidazole, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole or strains with unknown susceptibility.

    Children weighing 15 to 24 kg

    250 mg PO twice daily in combination with amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Triple therapy with standard-dose amoxicillin, metronidazole, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with known susceptibility to metronidazole and resistance to clarithromycin. Triple therapy with high-dose amoxicillin, metronidazole, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole or strains with unknown susceptibility.

    As part of a sequential therapy regimen in pediatric patients.
    Oral dosage
    Children and Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 5 days, after initial therapy with amoxicillin and a PPI for 5 days. Sequential therapy is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with fully susceptible H. pylori strains. Sequential therapy is not recommended if susceptibility testing is unavailable.

    Children and Adolescents weighing 25 to 34 kg

    500 mg PO in the morning and 250 mg PO in the evening (tablets) OR 375 mg PO twice daily (oral suspension) in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 5 days, after initial therapy with amoxicillin and a PPI for 5 days. Sequential therapy is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with fully susceptible H. pylori strains. Sequential therapy is not recommended if susceptibility testing is unavailable.

    Children weighing 15 to 24 kg

    250 mg PO twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 5 days, after initial therapy with amoxicillin and a PPI for 5 days. Sequential therapy is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with fully susceptible H. pylori strains. Sequential therapy is not recommended if susceptibility testing is unavailable.

    In combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for penicillin-allergic pediatric patients.
    Oral dosage
    Children and Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Triple therapy with metronidazole, clarithromycin, and a PPI is recommended for penicillin-allergic patients infected with fully susceptible H. pylori strains.[63135]

    Children and Adolescents weighing 25 to 34 kg

    500 mg PO in the morning and 250 mg PO in the evening (tablets) OR 375 mg PO twice daily (oral suspension) in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Triple therapy with metronidazole, clarithromycin, and a PPI is recommended for penicillin-allergic patients infected with fully susceptible H. pylori strains.

    Children weighing 15 to 24 kg

    250 mg PO twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Triple therapy with metronidazole, clarithromycin, and a PPI is recommended for penicillin-allergic patients infected with fully susceptible H. pylori strains.

    As part of a quadruple therapy regimen in pediatric patients.
    Oral dosage
    Children and Adolescents weighing 35 kg or more

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Concomitant quadruple therapy with amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole or strains with unknown susceptibility.

    Children and Adolescents weighing 25 to 34 kg

    500 mg PO in the morning and 250 mg PO in the evening (tablets) OR 375 mg PO twice daily (oral suspension) in combination with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Concomitant quadruple therapy with amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole or strains with unknown susceptibility.

    Children weighing 15 to 24 kg

    250 mg PO twice daily in combination with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 14 days. Concomitant quadruple therapy with amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and a PPI is a first-line treatment option for patients infected with H. pylori strains with dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole or strains with unknown susceptibility.

    As part of clarithromycin-based salvage therapy in adults who failed initial bismuth quadruple therapy.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO 2 or 3 times daily in combination with clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 10 to 14 days. For patients with a penicillin allergy, metronidazole is recommended in combination with clarithromycin and a PPI for 14 days.

    As part of levofloxacin-based initial therapy in adults.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO twice daily in combination with levofloxacin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 5 to 7 days after amoxicillin in combination with a PPI for 5 to 7 days. Guidelines recommend this sequential therapy as a first-line treatment option.

    As part of bismuth quadruple initial therapy in adults.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    250 mg PO 4 times daily or 500 mg PO 3 or 4 times daily in combination with bismuth subcitrate or subsalicylate, tetracycline, and a proton pump inhibitor for 10 to 14 days is recommended as a first-line treatment option, particularly in patients with any previous macrolide exposure or a penicillin allergy.

    As part of bismuth quadruple salvage therapy in adults.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO 3 or 4 times daily in combination with bismuth subcitrate or subsalicylate, tetracycline, and a proton pump inhibitor for 14 days is recommended particularly in patients failing clarithromycin triple therapy. A subsequent repeat course of bismuth quadruple therapy may be considered after failed prior bismuth quadruple therapy.

    As part of levofloxacin-based salvage therapy in adults with a penicillin allergy who have failed initial bismuth quadruple therapy.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO 3 or 4 times daily in combination with levofloxacin and a proton pump inhibitor for 14 days.

    As part of dual salvage therapy in adults with prior quinolone exposure and a penicillin allergy who have failed initial bismuth quadruple therapy.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO 3 or 4 times daily in combination with a high-dose proton pump inhibitor for 14 days.

    For the treatment of giardiasis†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    250 mg PO 3 times daily for 5 to 7 days.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    15 mg/kg/day (Max: 750 mg/day) PO divided every 8 hours for 5 to 7 days.

    For the treatment of anaerobic intraabdominal infections, including peritonitis, appendicitis, intraabdominal abscess, biliary tract infections (cholecystitis, cholangitis), complicated diverticulitis, neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis†, peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis†, and peritoneal dialysis catheter-related infection†.
    For the general treatment of intraabdominal infections.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day).

    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day).[36894]

    For the treatment of complicated community-acquired, healthcare-acquired, or hospital-acquired intraabdominal infections with adequate source control.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO every 6 hours as part of combination therapy for 3 to 7 days. Complicated infections include peritonitis and appendicitis complicated by rupture, intraabdominal abscess, and complicated diverticulitis.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    30 mg/kg/day (Max: 1.5 g/day) PO divided every 8 hours as part of combination therapy for 3 to 7 days. Complicated infections include peritonitis and appendicitis complicated by rupture, and intraabdominal abscess.

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    10 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours as part of combination therapy for 7 to 10 days. Metronidazole is an option for necrotizing enterocolitis. Although oral dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete, and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours as part of combination therapy for 7 to 10 days. Metronidazole is an option for necrotizing enterocolitis. Although oral dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete, and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 12 hours as part of combination therapy for 7 to 10 days. Metronidazole is an option for necrotizing enterocolitis. Although oral dosing is not specified in the guidelines for neonates, oral absorption of metronidazole is nearly complete, and the same dose that is given IV is given orally.

    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    1 g IV loading dose then 500 mg IV every 6 to 12 hours or 1.5 g IV every 24 hours as part of combination therapy for 3 to 7 days. Complicated infections include peritonitis and appendicitis complicated by rupture, and intraabdominal abscess.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    22.5 to 40 mg/kg/day IV divided every 6 to 8 hours (Max: 500 mg/dose) as part of combination therapy for 3 to 7 days. Complicated infections include peritonitis and appendicitis complicated by rupture, and intraabdominal abscess.

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours as part of combination therapy for 7 to 10 days. Metronidazole is an option for necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours as part of combination therapy for 7 to 10 days. Metronidazole is an option for necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger†

    7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 12 hours as part of combination therapy for 7 to 10 days. Metronidazole is an option for necrotizing enterocolitis.

    For the treatment of uncomplicated intraabdominal infections.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO every 6 hours as part of combination therapy. Antibiotics should be discontinued within 24 hours. Uncomplicated infections include acute appendicitis without perforation, abscess, or local peritonitis; traumatic bowel perforations repaired within 12 hours; acute cholecystitis without perforation; and ischemic, non-perforated bowel.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    30 mg/kg/day (Max: 1.5 g/day) PO divided every 8 hours as part of combination therapy. Antibiotics should be discontinued within 24 hours. Uncomplicated infections include acute appendicitis without perforation, abscess, or local peritonitis; traumatic bowel perforations repaired within 12 hours; acute cholecystitis without perforation; and ischemic, non-perforated bowel.

    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    1 g IV loading dose then 500 mg IV every 6 to 12 hours or 1.5 g IV once as part of combination therapy. Antibiotics should be discontinued within 24 hours. Uncomplicated infections include acute appendicitis without perforation, abscess, or local peritonitis; traumatic bowel perforations repaired within 12 hours; acute cholecystitis without perforation; and ischemic, non-perforated bowel.

    Infants†, Children†, and Adolescents†

    22.5 to 40 mg/kg/day IV divided every 6 to 8 hours (Max: 500 mg/dose) as part of combination therapy. Antibiotics should be discontinued within 24 hours. Uncomplicated infections include acute appendicitis without perforation, abscess, or local peritonitis; traumatic bowel perforations repaired within 12 hours; acute cholecystitis without perforation; and ischemic, non-perforated bowel.

    For the treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    7.5 mg/kg/dose PO every 6 hours (Max: 4 g/day) for 21 days.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    30 mg/kg/day (Max: 1.5 g/day) PO divided every 8 hours for 14 to 21 days.

    For the treatment of peritoneal dialysis catheter-related infection†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO every 8 hours for at least 14 to 21 days.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    30 mg/kg/day (Max: 1.5 g/day) PO divided every 8 hours for at least 14 to 28 days.

    For the treatment of tetanus†.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    500 mg PO every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    30 mg/kg/day (Max: 4 g/day) PO in divided doses every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days.

    Intravenous dosage
    Adults

    500 mg IV every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days.

    Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    30 mg/kg/day (Max: 4 g/day) IV in divided doses every 6 hours for 7 to 10 days.

    Neonates older than 40 weeks postmenstrual age

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 10 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours.

    Neonates 35 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 8 hours.

    Neonates 34 weeks postmenstrual age and younger

    15 mg/kg IV loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg/dose IV every 12 hours.

    †Indicates off-label use

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    4 g/day PO or IV.

    Geriatric

    4 g/day PO or IV.

    Adolescents

    50 mg/kg/day PO (Max: 2,250 mg/day); safety and efficacy of IV use have not been established; however, doses up to 40 mg/kg/day IV have been used off-label (Max: 4 g/day).

    Children

    50 mg/kg/day PO (Max: 2,250 mg/day); safety and efficacy of IV use have not been established; however, doses up to 40 mg/kg/day IV have been used off-label (Max: 4 g/day).

    Infants

    50 mg/kg/day PO; safety and efficacy of IV have not been established; however, doses up to 40 mg/kg/day IV have been used off-label.

    Neonates

    Postmenstrual age (PMA) older than 40 weeks: Safety and efficacy have not been established; however, doses up to 30 mg/kg/day IV have been used off-label.
    PMA 35 to 40 weeks: Safety and efficacy have not been established; however, doses up to 22.5 mg/kg/day IV have been used off-label.
    PMA 34 weeks and younger: Safety and efficacy have not been established; however, doses up to 15 mg/kg/day IV have been used off-label.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Reduce the dose of systemic metronidazole by 50% in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C). Single systemic doses may not need to be adjusted.

    Renal Impairment

    No dosage adjustment needed in adult patients. Metabolites will likely accumulate in patients with a CrCl less than 10 mL/minute. In pediatric patients with a CrCl less than 10 mL/minute/1.73 m2, a dose of 4 mg/kg/dose IV/PO every 6 hours is recommended (based on usual dose of 15 to 30 mg/kg/day divided every 6 to 8 hours).
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    No dosage adjustment is necessary in adult patients; however, administer systemic doses after hemodialysis. Systemically administered metronidazole is significantly removed (up to 65% of a dose) during a standard hemodialysis session. In pediatric patients, a dose of 4 mg/kg/dose IV/PO every 6 hours is recommended (based on usual dose of 15 to 30 mg/kg/day divided every 6 to 8 hours).
     
    Peritoneal dialysis
    No dosage adjustment is necessary in adult patients. The pharmacokinetic disposition of metronidazole is not significantly altered in patients undergoing CAPD. In pediatric patients, a dose of 4 mg/kg/dose IV/PO every 6 hours is recommended (based on usual dose of 15 to 30 mg/kg/day divided every 6 to 8 hours).
     
    Chronic renal replacement therapy (CRRT)
    No dosage adjustment is necessary.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Oral absorption is nearly complete; therefore, parenteral administration is often unnecessary unless patients cannot take PO.

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Regular-release tablets or capsules: Administer without regard to meals.
    Extended-release tablets: Swallow whole; do not crush, break, or chew. Administer on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Reconstitution for powder for oral suspension
    Available as a compounding kit containing 1 bottle of metronidazole powder and 1 bottle of grape-flavored diluent.
    Various bottle sizes are available that when reconstituted produce either a 50 mg/mL or 100 mg/mL metronidazole oral suspension. Select the appropriate bottle size and concentration for the individual patient.
    Tap the bottom edges of the bottle containing the metronidazole powder on a hard surface to loosen the powder.
    Remove the cap from the bottle containing the metronidazole powder. Tap the top of the induction seal to loosen any powder which may have adhered to the seal. Slowly peel back the foil seal.
    Shake the diluent bottle for a few seconds prior to removing the cap.
    Open the diluent bottle and pour about half of the diluent into the metronidazole powder bottle.
    Replace the cap and shake the mixture bottle vigorously for approximately 60 seconds.
    Empty the remaining diluent into the metronidazole powder bottle. Allow remaining diluent to drain into the powder bottle for 10 seconds.
    Replace the cap and shake the mixture bottle vigorously for approximately 60 seconds.
    Wait at least 1 hour before administering the first dose.
    Storage: Store reconstituted solution at room temperature (15 to 30 degrees C; 59 to 86 degrees F); Do not freeze. Keep container tightly closed and protect from light. Discard any unused solution after 30 days.
     
    Administration for oral suspension
    Shake bottle vigorously prior to each administration.
    Measure dosage with calibrated spoon, cup, or oral syringe.

    Extemporaneous Compounding-Oral

    NOTE: Extemporaneously prepared suspensions are not FDA-approved.
     
    Extemporaneous preparation of 50 mg/mL metronidazole oral suspension:
    Using a mortar and pestle, grind 24 x 250 mg metronidazole tablets to a fine powder.
    To make the base solution: In a separate container, mix 1 of the following combinations: 1) 60 mL of Ora-Sweet with 60 mL of Ora-Plus; or 2) 60 mL of Ora-Sweet SF with 60 mL of Ora-Plus; or 3) 120 mL cherry syrup (cherry syrup concentrate diluted 1:4 with simple syrup).
    Add a small amount of the base solution to the fine powder and mix into a uniform paste. Add geometric amounts of the base solution and mix well after each addition.
    Transfer to a graduated cylinder and add additional base solution to make a total of 120 mL. Mix well.
    Place in amber plastic bottles. Shake well before each use.
    Storage: This oral suspension is stable for at least 60 days when stored at room temperature or refrigerated.
     
    Extemporaneous preparation of 10 mg/mL metronidazole oral suspension:
    Using a mortar and pestle, grind 5 x 250 mg metronidazole tablets to a fine powder.
    To make the base solution: In a separate container, mix 62.5 mL of Ora-Sweet with 62.5 mL of Ora-Plus and shake well.
    Add a small amount of the base solution to the fine powder and mix into a uniform paste. Add geometric amounts of the base solution and mix well after each addition.
    Transfer to a graduated cylinder and add additional base solution to make a total of 125 mL. Mix well.
    Place in amber plastic bottles. Shake well before each use.
    Storage: This oral suspension is stable for at least 90 days when stored at room temperature.

    Injectable Administration

    Administer by slow IV infusion only, either as a continuous or intermittent infusion.
    Do not admix with other drugs. If used with a primary intravenous fluid system, the primary solution should be discontinued during metronidazole infusion.
    Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

    Intravenous Administration

    Preparation of Intravenous Infusion
    Supplied as 5 mg/mL ready to use single-use infusion bags. No dilution required prior to administration.
    Do not refrigerate.
     
    Intermittent Intravenous Infusion
    Remove from foil wrapping just prior to administration.
    Infuse by slow intermittent IV infusion over 30 to 60 minutes.
    Do not use in series connections; air embolism may occur.
    Do not use equipment containing aluminum (e.g., needles, cannulae) that would come in contact with the drug solution during administration as precipitates may form.

    Topical Administration

    Topical products differ in pH from vaginal products; therefore, topical cream, gel, and lotion are for topical application to the skin only. Do not use topical products orally or vaginally.
    Avoid contact with the eyes.
    Prior to administration, cleanse area with a mild, nonirritating cleanser.

    Cream/Ointment/Lotion Formulations

    Cream/Gel application: A thin layer should be rubbed into the affected areas. Cosmetics, sunscreens, and/or moisturizers may be used after applying cream, if needed.
    Lotion application: Apply a thin layer to entire affected areas. Cosmetics, sunscreens, and/or moisturizers may be applied after the lotion has dried and 5 minutes have passed.

    Intravaginal Administration

    Vaginal and topical products differ in pH, therefore, vaginal gel is for vaginal use only; do not use vaginal products orally or topically.
    Instruct patient on proper use.
    Use special applicator supplied by the manufacturer.

    STORAGE

    Generic:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store at 77 degrees F; brief exposure up to 104 degrees F does not adversely affect product
    First-Metronidazole 100 :
    - After compounding, store at controlled room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    First-Metronidazole 50:
    - After compounding, store at controlled room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Flagyl:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Flagyl ER:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
    - Store in a dry place
    Flagyl RTU:
    - Avoid excessive heat (above 104 degrees F)
    - Discard product if it contains particulate matter, is cloudy, or discolored
    - Discard unused portion. Do not store for later use.
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store at 77 degrees F; brief exposure up to 104 degrees F does not adversely affect product
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    - Store in moisture barrier overwrap until time of use
    MetroCream:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    MetroGel:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    MetroGel Vaginal:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    MetroGel-Vaginal:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    MetroLotion:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Noritate:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    NUVESSA:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    Nydamax:
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Rosadan:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
    Vandazole:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at room temperature (between 59 to 86 degrees F)
    Vitazol :
    - Protect from freezing
    - Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Hematological disease

    Metronidazole is contraindicated in patients with a prior history of hypersensitivity to metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives. Systemic metronidazole should be used with care in patients with evidence of or history of hematological disease; monitor complete blood count (CBC) in these patients. Agranulocytosis, leukopenia, and neutropenia have been associated with systemic metronidazole administration.

    Dialysis, renal failure, renal impairment

    Systemic metronidazole and its metabolites may accumulate significantly in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (renal failure), including in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, due to reduced urinary excretion. Monitor for metronidazole-associated adverse events.

    Apheresis, AV block, bradycardia, cardiomyopathy, celiac disease, females, fever, heart failure, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hyperparathyroidism, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, long QT syndrome, myocardial infarction, pheochromocytoma, QT prolongation, rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease, sleep deprivation, stroke, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    Use metronidazole injection with caution in patients with cardiac disease, heart failure, or who are otherwise predisposed to edema, because it contains 28 mEq of sodium per gram of metronidazole. This large amount of sodium can promote sodium retention and exacerbate peripheral edema or congestive heart failure. QT prolongation has been reported with metronidazole use. Use metronidazole with caution in patients with conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including congenital long QT syndrome, bradycardia, AV block, heart failure, stress-related cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Females, people 65 years and older, patients with sleep deprivation, pheochromocytoma, sickle cell disease, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypothermia, systemic inflammation (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, fever, and some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and celiac disease) and patients undergoing apheresis procedures (e.g., plasmapheresis [plasma exchange], cytapheresis) may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation.

    New primary malignancy

    Metronidazole, when given systemically, has been reported to be carcinogenic in mice and rats. Similar studies in the hamster gave negative results. Also, metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in a number of in vitro assay systems, but studies in mammals (in vivo) failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage. Human data are not available to describe the risk of a new primary malignancy secondary to use. The boxed warning states that systemic metronidazole use should be reserved for conditions where the drug is clearly needed; avoid unnecessary use. Vaginal and topical forms of metronidazole do not carry the boxed warning regarding carcinogenicity.

    Alcoholism, ethanol ingestion, ethanol intoxication

    Oral, injectable, and intravaginal dosage forms of metronidazole should be used with caution in patients with alcoholism or ethanol intoxication. Metronidazole may interfere with the metabolism of ethanol, resulting in disulfiram-like effects. Patients should try to avoid ethanol ingestion to avoid the risk of undesirable side effects. It is recommended that alcoholic beverages or medicines not be used concurrently with metronidazole or for at least 3 days following the discontinuation of the drug. Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients on metronidazole and disulfiram therapy.

    Fungal infection

    Metronidazole use may result in candidal overgrowth. Known or previously unrecognized candida fungal infection may present more prominent symptoms during therapy with metronidazole and requires treatment with an appropriate antifungal agent.

    Crohn's disease

    Crohn's disease patients are known to have an increased incidence of gastrointestinal and certain extraintestinal cancers. There have been some reports in the medical literature of breast and colon cancer in Crohn's disease patients who have been treated with metronidazole at high doses for extended periods of time. A cause and effect relationship has not been established.

    Ocular exposure

    Topical metronidazole gels or creams contain ingredients that may cause burning and irritation of the eye. In the event of accidental ocular exposure, rinse the eye with copious amounts of cool tap water.

    Sexually transmitted disease

    Metronidazole may be used to treat certain sexually transmitted diseases (STD). All patients with a diagnosed or suspected STD should be tested for other STDs, which may include HIV, syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, at the time of diagnosis. Initiate appropriate therapy and perform follow-up testing as recommended based upon sexually transmitted disease diagnosis.

    Hepatic disease, hepatic encephalopathy

    Reduce metronidazole dose in patients with severe hepatic disease or impairment (Child-Pugh C) or hepatic encephalopathy due to slowed metabolism and accumulation in plasma, which may cause exacerbations of CNS adverse events in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Monitor patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment for metronidazole-associated adverse effects.

    Cockayne syndrome

    Use metronidazole in patients with Cockayne syndrome only if no alternative treatment is available. Cases of severe hepatotoxicity and acute hepatic failure, including a fatal outcome with very rapid onset after treatment initiation with systemic metronidazole, have been reported in these patients. Obtain liver function tests prior to the start of therapy, within the first 2 to 3 days after initiation of therapy, frequently during therapy, and after the end of treatment. Discontinue metronidazole if there is an elevation of liver function tests, and monitor until baseline values are reached. Advise patients with Cockayne syndrome to stop taking metronidazole immediately and contact their healthcare provider if they experience any symptoms of potential hepatic injury, such as abdominal pain, nausea, change in stool color, or jaundice.

    Corticosteroid therapy, edema, sodium restriction

    Use intravenous formulations of metronidazole with caution in patients that require sodium restriction, those on corticosteroid therapy, and those predisposed to edema. Certain formulations of intravenous metronidazole may contain sodium.

    Laboratory test interference

    Systemic metronidazole therapy may cause laboratory test interference with certain laboratory measurements, such as AST, ALT, LDH, triglycerides, and hexokinase glucose; values of zero may be noted. All of the assays in which interference has been observed use enzymatic coupling of the assay to oxidation reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Interference is due to the similarity in the absorbance peaks of NADH (340 nm) and metronidazole (322 nm) at a pH of 7. Metronidazole causes an increase in ultraviolet absorbance at 340 nm resulting in falsely decreased values. Antimicrobials are also known to suppress H. pylori; thus, ingestion of these agents within 4 weeks of performing diagnostic tests for H. pylori may lead to false negative results. At a minimum, instruct the patient to avoid the use of metronidazole in the 4 weeks prior to the test.

    Geriatric

    Use metronidazole with caution in geriatric patients as they may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation. Additionally, geriatric patients may be likely to have hepatic impairment or renal impairment and the hepatic metabolism and/or renal clearance of metronidazole may be reduced. Therefore, monitoring of clinical response may be necessary to adjust the metronidazole dosage accordingly. No overall differences have been reported in safety and effectiveness between younger and older adult patients, but greater sensitivity of some older patients cannot be ruled out. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, use of antibiotics should be limited to confirmed or suspected bacterial infections. Antibiotics are non-selective and may result in the eradication of beneficial microorganisms while promoting the emergence of undesired ones, causing secondary infections such as oral thrush, colitis, or vaginitis. Any antibiotic may cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and hypersensitivity reactions.

    Pregnancy

    Oral metronidazole is contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy in patients with trichomoniasis. However, guidelines suggest metronidazole use for trichomoniasis at any stage of pregnancy as studies have not demonstrated an association between metronidazole and teratogenic effects. For indications other than trichomoniasis, avoid metronidazole during pregnancy whenever possible, with use occurring only after careful assessment of the potential risk to benefit ratio. Available data on metronidazole use in pregnant women from published cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, meta-analyses, and case reports over several decades have not established a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproductive studies, no adverse developmental effects were demonstrated when oral metronidazole was administered at doses up to 6 times the recommended human dose. While not an animal teratogen, systemically absorbed metronidazole readily crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Reports in humans are conflicting, and the effects of metronidazole on human fetal organogenesis are not known. In a large population-based cohort study (n = 139,938 live births) assessing antibiotic exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 15,469 exposures) and the risk of major birth defects, metronidazole use was not associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations or organ specific major congenital malformations. However, in a nested, case-control study (n = 87,020 controls; 8,702 cases) within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, metronidazole use during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.26; 53 exposed cases); residual confounding by severity of infection may be a potential limitation of this study.

    Breast-feeding

    Metronidazole is excreted into breast milk. Breast-feeding is not recommended during treatment with systemic products. There are no data on the presence of metronidazole in human milk after intravaginal administration. Because of the possibility of some systemic absorption after intravaginal administration, interrupt breast-feeding for 48 hours after the last intravaginal dose and feed the infant with previously stored human breast milk or formula. The 0.75% vaginal gel achieves 2% of the mean maximum serum concentration of a 500 mg oral dose. Caution is advised with other topical products. Metronidazole is a mutagen in vitro and has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies. In general, increased oral and rectal Candida colonization and loose stools have been reported in infants exposed to metronidazole via breast milk. Guidelines recommend a single 2 g oral dose for the treatment of trichomoniasis during breast-feeding. Previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations suggested that if a single 2 g oral dose is given for trichomoniasis, then breast-feeding may be resumed in 12 to 24 hours; otherwise, breast-feeding may be resumed within 24 to 48 hours after the last dose of treatment is completed if other dosage regimens are used. In a study of 3 patients that received a single 2 g oral dose, peak milk concentrations ranged between 50 and 60 mcg/mL at 2 to 4 hours after the dose. If breast-feeding were to continue, the estimated infant exposure during the next 48 hours would be 25.3 mg; if breast-feeding was interrupted for 12 hours, the estimated 48-hour exposure would be 9.8 mg, and if breast-feeding was interrupted for 24 hours, the estimated 48 hour exposure would be 3.5 mg. In studies of women receiving 600 mg/day, metronidazole milk concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 15.2 mcg/mL and in patients receiving 1,200 mg/day concentrations ranged from 9.02 to 15.52 mcg/mL. The mean milk:plasma ratio in both groups was approximately 1, and the mean plasma concentrations in the exposed infants were approximately 20% of the maternal plasma concentration. Depending on the indication, oral vancomycin, amoxicillin; clavulanate, ampicillin; sulbactam, or clindamycin (systemic or intravaginal) may be potential alternatives to consider during breast-feeding. Assess site of infection, patient factors, local susceptibility patterns, and specific microbial susceptibility before choosing an alternative agent. Vancomycin is excreted in breast milk; however, absorption from the GI tract of any ingested vancomycin would be minimal. Alternative antimicrobials that previous AAP recommendations considered as usually compatible with breast-feeding include clindamycin and penicillins.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    aseptic meningitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known
    agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) / Delayed / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    new primary malignancy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    serum sickness / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatic failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hepatotoxicity / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    vaginitis / Delayed / 0-15.0
    candidiasis / Delayed / 0.2-12.0
    hypertension / Early / 1.1-1.1
    constipation / Delayed / 0-1.0
    depression / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dysuria / Early / 0-1.0
    ataxia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neurotoxicity / Early / Incidence not known
    dysarthria / Delayed / Incidence not known
    peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    nystagmus / Delayed / Incidence not known
    encephalopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
    confusion / Early / Incidence not known
    psychosis / Early / Incidence not known
    neutropenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    eosinophilia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    leukopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    erythema / Early / Incidence not known
    contact dermatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    phlebitis / Rapid / Incidence not known
    urinary incontinence / Early / Incidence not known
    cystitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    stomatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    superinfection / Delayed / Incidence not known
    glossitis / Early / Incidence not known
    proctitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dyspareunia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    sinus tachycardia / Rapid / Incidence not known
    QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    palpitations / Early / Incidence not known
    ST-T wave changes / Rapid / Incidence not known
    chest pain (unspecified) / Early / Incidence not known
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    headache / Early / 2.2-18.0
    vaginal discharge / Delayed / 12.0-12.0
    nausea / Early / 1.6-10.0
    metallic taste / Early / 2.0-9.0
    dysgeusia / Early / 2.0-9.0
    infection / Delayed / 0-7.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 1.6-6.0
    influenza / Delayed / 0-6.0
    abdominal pain / Early / 4.0-5.0
    pruritus ani / Early / 5.0-5.0
    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-4.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-4.0
    dizziness / Early / 0-4.0
    rhinitis / Early / 0-4.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 2.0-3.1
    dysmenorrhea / Delayed / 1.2-3.0
    sinusitis / Delayed / 1.4-3.0
    xerostomia / Early / 2.0-2.0
    nasal congestion / Early / 1.1-1.1
    flatulence / Early / 0-1.0
    anorexia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 0-1.0
    gingivitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    insomnia / Early / 0-1.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 0-1.0
    acne vulgaris / Delayed / 0-1.0
    urticaria / Rapid / 0-1.0
    rash / Early / 1.0-1.0
    increased urinary frequency / Early / 0-1.0
    breast enlargement / Delayed / 0-1.0
    leukorrhea / Delayed / 0-1.0
    menorrhagia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    back pain / Delayed / 0-1.0
    vaginal irritation / Early / 9.0
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    vertigo / Early / Incidence not known
    drowsiness / Early / Incidence not known
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    weakness / Early / Incidence not known
    irritability / Delayed / Incidence not known
    paresthesias / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hypoesthesia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    skin irritation / Early / Incidence not known
    hyperhidrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    fever / Early / Incidence not known
    flushing / Rapid / Incidence not known
    ocular irritation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    xerosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    injection site reaction / Rapid / Incidence not known
    polyuria / Early / Incidence not known
    urine discoloration / Early / Incidence not known
    libido decrease / Delayed / Incidence not known
    myalgia / Early / Incidence not known
    arthralgia / Delayed / Incidence not known
    muscle cramps / Delayed / Incidence not known
    hiccups / Early / Incidence not known
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    chills / Rapid / Incidence not known
    malaise / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Alfuzosin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and alfuzosin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Amiodarone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and amiodarone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Amisulpride: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and amisulpride increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Amitriptyline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Minor) Since celecoxib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9, concurrent administration with metronidazole, which can inhibit this enzyme, may result in increased levels of celecoxib. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Anagrelide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and anagrelide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and apomorphine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and aripiprazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Arsenic Trioxide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and arsenic trioxide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and artemether; lumefantrine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Asenapine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and asenapine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Atomoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and atomoxetine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Azithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and azithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Barbiturates: (Minor) Barbiturates may decrease the half-life and plasma concentrations of metronidazole. The clinical significance of this effect is uncertain.
    Bedaquiline: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and bedaquiline increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) Coadministration of ergotamine with inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as metronidazole, may potentially increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Bortezomib: (Minor) Monitor patients for the development of peripheral neuropathy when receiving bortezomib in combination with other drugs that can cause peripheral neuropathy like metronidazole; the risk of peripheral neuropathy may be additive.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Bosentan is metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes. Metronidazole inhibits CYP2C9 and may theoretically lead to elevated plasma concentrations of bosentan when coadministered.
    Buprenorphine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and buprenorphine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and buprenorphine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Busulfan: (Major) Systemic metronidazole should not be administered with busulfan unless the benefit outweighs the risk. If no therapeutic alternatives to metronidazole exist, monitor busulfan concentrations and adjust the busulfan doses as necessary. Metronidazole may increase plasma concentrations of busulfan, which can result in an increased risk for serious busulfan toxicity such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, gastrointestinal mucositis, and hepatic veno-occlusive disease.
    Cabotegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Carbamazepine: (Minor) Monitor serum concentrations of carbamazepine when coadministered with systemic metronidazole. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of carbamazepine; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects.
    Carbidopa: (Moderate) There was a 5% incidence of generalized polyneuropathy during clinical trial evaluation of carbidopa; levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa). The manufacturer recommends an initial evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, and periodic monitoring for peripheral neuropathy during treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications that are associated with neuropathy. Metronidazole has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has also been reported in patients treated with other nitroimidazole drugs.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Moderate) There was a 5% incidence of generalized polyneuropathy during clinical trial evaluation of carbidopa; levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa). The manufacturer recommends an initial evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, and periodic monitoring for peripheral neuropathy during treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications that are associated with neuropathy. Metronidazole has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has also been reported in patients treated with other nitroimidazole drugs.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) There was a 5% incidence of generalized polyneuropathy during clinical trial evaluation of carbidopa; levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa). The manufacturer recommends an initial evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, and periodic monitoring for peripheral neuropathy during treatment, particularly in patients receiving other medications that are associated with neuropathy. Metronidazole has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, with the prevalence and severity of the neuropathy being directly related to the cumulative dose and duration of therapy. Peripheral neuropathy has also been reported in patients treated with other nitroimidazole drugs.
    Celecoxib: (Minor) Since celecoxib is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9, concurrent administration with metronidazole, which can inhibit this enzyme, may result in increased levels of celecoxib. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been established.
    Ceritinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ceritinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Chloroquine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and chloroquine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and chlorpromazine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Cholestyramine: (Moderate) Administer metronidazole at least 1 hour before or at least 4 to 6 hours after administration of cholestyramine. The oral bioavailability of metronidazole was reduced by 21% when given with cholestyramine.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Cimetidine is an enzyme inhibitor that can decrease the hepatic metabolism of metronidazole. As a result, elimination can be delayed and serum metronidazole concentrations can increase. The sequelae of this interaction are unclear, although prolonged administration of metronidazole has been associated with seizures. If possible, cimetidine should not be used during metronidazole therapy.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Cisapride: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and cisapride due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Citalopram: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and citalopram increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Clofazimine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clofazimine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Clomipramine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clozapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Crizotinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and crizotinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Cyclophosphamide: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in cyclophosphamide-related adverse reactions if coadministration with metronidazole is necessary. Acute encephalopathy has been reported in one patient receiving cyclophosphamide and metronidazole, although causal association is unclear. In an animal study, the combination of cyclophosphamide with metronidazole was associated with an increase in cyclophosphamide toxicity.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Monitor serum concentrations of cyclosporine when coadministered with systemic metronidazole. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of cyclosporine; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after metronidazole is discontinued. Cyclosporine parenteral and oral solutions contain ethanol; liquid-filled capsules contain ethanol in lower percentages. Administration of ethanol-containing formulations of cyclosporine to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Dasatinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and dasatinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Degarelix: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. degarelix) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Desflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Desipramine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and deutetrabenazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with deutetrabenazine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quinidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Dienogest; Estradiol valerate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Disopyramide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and disopyramide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Disulfiram: (Contraindicated) The combination of systemic metronidazole and disulfiram is contraindicated. Do not administer systemic metronidazole concomitantly or within 2 weeks after the administration of disulfiram because additive CNS toxic effects can occur. Case reports have described the development of CNS toxicity after metronidazole was coadministered with disulfiram, resulting in psychosis and confusion. This toxicity is believed to occur because of combined inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase. When metronidazole and disulfiram are combined, symptoms may become evident within 10 to 14 days, and symptoms may remain for 2 to 3 days after the drugs are discontinued.
    Dofetilide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and dofetilide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Dolasetron: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and dolasetron may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Donepezil: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and donepezil may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Donepezil; Memantine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and donepezil may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Doxepin: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) Cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors, such as metronidazole, may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol, thereby decreasing the formation of the active metabolite and thus, decreasing efficacy.
    Dronabinol: (Major) The use of metronidazole within 14 days of beginning therapy with dronabinol oral solution is contraindicated, due to the risk of a disulfiram-like reaction. Do not administer metronidazole within 7 days of completing therapy with the oral solution. Dronabinol oral solution contains 50% (w/w) dehydrated alcohol and 5% (w/w) propylene glycol, which can produce disulfiram-like reactions (e.g., abdominal cramps, nausea/vomiting, headaches, and flushing) with drugs such as metronidazole. Ethanol competitively inhibits the metabolism of propylene glycol; however, the contribution of propylene glycol to these reactions is unknown. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations (e.g., dronabinol oral capsules).
    Dronedarone: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and dronedarone due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Droperidol: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and droperidol increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Drospirenone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and efavirenz may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and efavirenz may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and efavirenz may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Eliglustat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and eliglustat may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Encorafenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and encorafenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Enflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Entrectinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and entrectinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ergonovine: (Major) Coadministration of ergonovine with inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as metronidazole, may potentially increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Ergotamine: (Major) Coadministration of ergotamine with inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as metronidazole, may potentially increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Major) Coadministration of ergotamine with inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as metronidazole, may potentially increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Eribulin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and eribulin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and erythromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and erythromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Escitalopram: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and escitalopram may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Estradiol; Levonorgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Estradiol; Norethindrone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Estradiol; Norgestimate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethanol: (Contraindicated) Advise patients to discontinue alcohol-containing beverages and other forms of alcohol (including medicines with significant alcohol content and any products containing propylene glycol) before, during, and up to 3 days after therapy with systemic metronidazole. Disulfiram-like side effects including nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, headache, flushing, and abdominal cramps may occur if used together. (Contraindicated) Advise patients to discontinue alcoholic beverages and other forms of alcohol (including medicines with significant alcohol content and any products containing propylene glycol) before, during, and up to 3 days after therapy with systemic metronidazole. Disulfiram-like side effects including nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, headache, flushing, and abdominal cramps may occur if used together.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ethynodiol Diacetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Etonogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ezogabine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ezogabine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fingolimod: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fingolimod may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Flecainide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and flecainide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Floxuridine: (Minor) Enhancement of toxicity of fluorouracil, 5-FU, has been reported in a limited number of patients during concurrent treatment with metronidazole. This toxicity occurred without an increase in efficacy of fluorouracil. Toxicity may manifest as granulocytopenia, oral ulceration, anemia, and nausea and vomiting. This interaction is believed to occur through reduced clearance of fluorouracil. Floxuridine is a deoxyribonucleoside derivative of fluorouracil and may interact with metronidazole in a similar manner.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluorouracil, 5-FU: (Minor) Caution is warranted with the coadministration of systemic metronidazole and systemic fluorouracil, 5-FU. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of fluorouracil; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects. Toxicity may manifest as granulocytopenia, oral ulceration, anemia, and nausea and vomiting.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluoxetine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluphenazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of fluphenazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Fluvoxamine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluvoxamine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Foscarnet: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and foscarnet increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Fosphenytoin: (Moderate) Metronidazole can decrease the clearance of phenytoin or fosphenytoin, which can lead to an increase in phenytoin plasma concentrations. Phenytoin levels should be checked regularly when metronidazole therapy is undertaken.
    Fostemsavir: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fostemsavir may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with fostemsavir is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at 4 times the recommended daily dose.
    Gemifloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and gemifloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and gemtuzumab may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Gilteritinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and gilteritinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Glasdegib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and glasdegib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Goserelin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. goserelin) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Granisetron: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and granisetron may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Halogenated Anesthetics: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Haloperidol: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and haloperidol may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The intravenous route may carry a higher risk for haloperidol-induced QT/QTc prolongation than other routes of administration.
    Halothane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Histrelin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. histrelin) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and hydroxychloroquine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and hydroxyzine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ibutilide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ibutilide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Iloperidone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and iloperidone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Imipramine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and inotuzumab increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Isoflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and itraconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ivosidenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ivosidenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ixabepilone: (Contraindicated) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be administered during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. The supplied diluent that must be used for reconstitution of ixabepilone has a high concentration of dehydrated alcohol (39.8% w/v). Administration of ixabepilone to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ketoconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and clarithromycin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lapatinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lefamulin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lefamulin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Lenvatinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lenvatinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Leuprolide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. leuprolide) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. leuprolide) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Levofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and levofloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Levonorgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous Bisglycinate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Monitor serum lithium concentrations and serum creatinine with the concomitant use of systemic metronidazole and lithium. In patients stabilized on relatively high doses of lithium, short-term metronidazole use has been associated with elevation of serum lithium concentrations and, in a few cases, signs of lithium toxicity. Lithium toxicity may lead to renal damage. Additionally, lithium has been associated with QT prolongation and should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with other drugs with the potential to prolong the QT interval such as metronidazole.
    Lofexidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lofexidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Long-acting beta-agonists: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and long-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for QT/QTc prolongation may be greater with long-acting beta-agonists than short-acting beta-agonists.
    Loperamide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and loperamide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Loperamide; Simethicone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and loperamide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and lopinavir; ritonavir increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Macimorelin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and macimorelin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Maprotiline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and maprotiline may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mebendazole: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of mebendazole and metronidazole. Serious skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported with coadministration.
    Mefloquine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and mefloquine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Methadone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and methadone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Methylergonovine: (Major) Coadministration of certain ergot alkaloids with inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as metronidazole, may potentially increase the risk of ergot toxicity presenting as severe peripheral vasospasm with possible ischemia, potentially leading to gangrene, cyanosis, stroke, numbness of the extremities and/or other serious effects.
    Methysergide: (Major) Methysergide may be metabolized via CYP3A4. The risk of ergot toxicity is potentially increased by the use of CYP3A4 inhibitors including metronidazole.
    Midostaurin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and midostaurin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Mifepristone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and mifepristone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Mirtazapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and mirtazapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Mobocertinib: (Major) Concomitant use of mobocertinib and metronidazole increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Moxifloxacin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and moxifloxacin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Mycophenolate: (Moderate) Coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil, norfloxacin, and metronidazole is not recommended. Administration of all 3 drugs significantly reduced the systemic exposure of mycophenolic acid. Specifically, as compared with the value obtained with mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy, the mean mycophenolic acid AUC (0 to 48 h) was decreased by 33% when 1 gram of mycophenolate mofetil was administered to healthy patients who had received 4 days of both norfloxacin and metronidazole. The mycophenolic acid systemic exposure was slightly reduced when mycophenolate mofetil was coadministered with either norfloxacin or metronidazole. The mean (+/-SD) mycophenolic acid AUC (0 to 48 h) was 56.2 (+/-24) mcgh/ml after mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy, 48.3 (+/-24) mcgh/ml after coadministration with norfloxacin, and 42.7 (+/-23) mcgh/ml after coadministration with metronidazole. Addtionally, potential QT prolongation has been reported in limited case reports with metronidazole; therefore, it should be used cautiously when adminstered with norfloxacin, which has a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP.
    Nilotinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and nilotinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Norethindrone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norethindrone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Norgestrel: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Nortriptyline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and octreotide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Octreotide has a limited effect on the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses but may cause bradycardia and other conduction disturbances which may increase the risk for TdP in patients with a prolonged QT/QTc interval.
    Ofloxacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ofloxacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and olanzapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and fluoxetine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and olanzapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and olanzapine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Ondansetron: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ondansetron increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Oral Contraceptives: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Osilodrostat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and osilodrostat may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Osimertinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and osimertinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Oxaliplatin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and oxaliplatin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ozanimod: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ozanimod increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. Ozanimod has a limited effect on the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses but may cause bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction delays which may increase the risk for TdP in patients with a prolonged QT/QTc interval.
    Paclitaxel: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Some formulations of paclitaxel contain a high level of ethanol. Administration to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations.
    Paliperidone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and paliperidone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Panobinostat: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and panobinostat increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Pasireotide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pasireotide may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Pazopanib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pazopanib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Pentamidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and systemic pentamidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Perphenazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of perphenazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of perphenazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Phenytoin: (Minor) Monitor serum concentrations of phenytoin when coadministered with systemic metronidazole. Concomitant use with metronidazole may increase the serum concentrations of phenytoin; thereby, increasing the risk of side effects.
    Pimavanserin: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pimavanserin increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Pimozide: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and pimozide due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Pitolisant: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and pitolisant increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ponesimod: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ponesimod increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary. Ponesimod has a limited effect on the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses but may cause bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction delays which may increase the risk for TdP in patients with a prolonged QT/QTc interval.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and posaconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Primaquine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and primaquine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Procainamide: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and procainamide increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Prochlorperazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of prochlorperazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and promethazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Propafenone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and propafenone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Protriptyline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Quetiapine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quetiapine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Quinidine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quinidine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Quinine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and quinine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ramelteon: (Moderate) Coadministration of ramelteon with inhibitors of CYP2C9, such as metronidazole, may lead to increases in the serum concentrations of ramelteon.
    Ranolazine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ranolazine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Relugolix: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. relugolix) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. relugolix) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ribociclib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ribociclib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Rilpivirine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and rilpivirine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with rilpivirine is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and risperidone may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Ritonavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Ritonavir oral solution and capsules contain ethanol. Administration of ritonavir oral solution or capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received disulfiram or metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations of ritonavir (e.g., tablets, oral powder).
    Romidepsin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and romidepsin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Saquinavir: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and saquinavir increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available.
    Selpercatinib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and selpercatinib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sertraline: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sertraline may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Sevoflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and halogenated anesthetics increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Short-acting beta-agonists: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of short-acting beta-agonists and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for QT/QTc prolongation may be greater with long-acting beta-agonists than short-acting beta-agonists
    Siponimod: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and siponimod increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sirolimus: (Moderate) Although an interaction between metronidazole and sirolimus has not been studied, metronidazole has been reported to interact with tacrolimus. Specifically, a renal transplant patient reportedly had an increase in tacrolimus and cyclosporine serum concentrations when metronidazole was added to the drug regimen. A similar interaction may potentially occur with sirolimus.
    Sodium picosulfate; Magnesium oxide; Anhydrous citric acid: (Major) Prior or concomitant use of antibiotics with sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid may reduce efficacy of the bowel preparation as conversion of sodium picosulfate to its active metabolite bis-(p-hydroxy-phenyl)-pyridyl-2-methane (BHPM) is mediated by colonic bacteria. If possible, avoid coadministration. Certain antibiotics (i.e., tetracyclines and quinolones) may chelate with the magnesium in sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid solution. Therefore, these antibiotics should be taken at least 2 hours before and not less than 6 hours after the administration of sodium picosulfate; magnesium oxide; anhydrous citric acid solution.
    Solifenacin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and solifenacin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Sorafenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sorafenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sotalol: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sotalol increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. Intravenous sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim, SMX-TMP contains ethanol. A disulfiram-like reaction has occurred when metronidazole was used with IV sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim, SMX-TMP. This reaction would not be expected to occur with oral sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim, SMX-TMP.
    Sunitinib: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and sunitinib may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tacrolimus may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tamoxifen: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tamoxifen may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Telavancin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and telavancin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and telithromycin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tetrabenazine: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tetrabenazine increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Thalidomide: (Moderate) Thalidomide and other agents that cause peripheral neuropathy such as metronidazole should be used cautiously due to the potential for additive effects.
    Thioridazine: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of metronidazole and thioridazine due to an increased risk for torsade de pointes (TdP) and QT/QTc prolongation.
    Tipranavir: (Major) Medications with significant alcohol content should not be ingested during therapy with metronidazole and should be avoided for 3 days after therapy is discontinued. The Aptivus brand of tipranavir capsules contain alcohol. Administration of Aptivus capsules to patients receiving or who have recently received metronidazole may result in disulfiram-like reactions. A disulfiram reaction would not be expected to occur with non-ethanol containing formulations.
    Tolterodine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and tolterodine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for tolterodine-associated QT/QTc prolongation may be increased in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers.
    Toremifene: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and toremifene increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Trazodone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and trazodone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Triclabendazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and triclabendazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Trifluoperazine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of trifluoperazine and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Trimipramine: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Triptorelin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and androgen deprivation therapy (i.e. triptorelin) may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vandetanib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vandetanib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Vardenafil: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vardenafil may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vecuronium: (Minor) Caution is warranted with the coadministration of systemic metronidazole and vecuronium. Metronidazole may potentiate the effects of vecuronium.
    Vemurafenib: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vemurafenib increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.
    Venlafaxine: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and venlafaxine may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Voclosporin: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and voclosporin may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The degree of QT prolongation associated with voclosporin is not clinically significant when administered within the recommended dosage range; QT prolongation has been described at three times the maximum recommended dose.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and voriconazole may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Vorinostat: (Moderate) Concomitant use of metronidazole and vorinostat may increase the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) in some patients. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP.
    Warfarin: (Moderate) Monitor prothrombin time and INR and watch for signs of bleeding with concomitant use of systemic metronidazole and warfarin. Warfarin dose adjustments may be necessary. Metronidazole can potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin, resulting in prolongation of prothrombin time and increased risk of bleeding.
    Zalcitabine, ddC: (Moderate) It is recommended that zalcitabine, ddC not be used in combination with metronidazole due to additive peripheral neuropathy seen with concomitant use.
    Ziprasidone: (Major) Concomitant use of metronidazole and ziprasidone increases the risk of QT/QTc prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concomitant use if possible, especially in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Consider taking steps to minimize the risk for QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as electrolyte monitoring and repletion and ECG monitoring, if concomitant use is necessary.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    Oral metronidazole is contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy in patients with trichomoniasis. However, guidelines suggest metronidazole use for trichomoniasis at any stage of pregnancy as studies have not demonstrated an association between metronidazole and teratogenic effects. For indications other than trichomoniasis, avoid metronidazole during pregnancy whenever possible, with use occurring only after careful assessment of the potential risk to benefit ratio. Available data on metronidazole use in pregnant women from published cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, meta-analyses, and case reports over several decades have not established a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproductive studies, no adverse developmental effects were demonstrated when oral metronidazole was administered at doses up to 6 times the recommended human dose. While not an animal teratogen, systemically absorbed metronidazole readily crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Reports in humans are conflicting, and the effects of metronidazole on human fetal organogenesis are not known. In a large population-based cohort study (n = 139,938 live births) assessing antibiotic exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 15,469 exposures) and the risk of major birth defects, metronidazole use was not associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations or organ specific major congenital malformations. However, in a nested, case-control study (n = 87,020 controls; 8,702 cases) within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, metronidazole use during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.26; 53 exposed cases); residual confounding by severity of infection may be a potential limitation of this study.

    Metronidazole is excreted into breast milk. Breast-feeding is not recommended during treatment with systemic products. There are no data on the presence of metronidazole in human milk after intravaginal administration. Because of the possibility of some systemic absorption after intravaginal administration, interrupt breast-feeding for 48 hours after the last intravaginal dose and feed the infant with previously stored human breast milk or formula. The 0.75% vaginal gel achieves 2% of the mean maximum serum concentration of a 500 mg oral dose. Caution is advised with other topical products. Metronidazole is a mutagen in vitro and has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal studies. In general, increased oral and rectal Candida colonization and loose stools have been reported in infants exposed to metronidazole via breast milk. Guidelines recommend a single 2 g oral dose for the treatment of trichomoniasis during breast-feeding. Previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations suggested that if a single 2 g oral dose is given for trichomoniasis, then breast-feeding may be resumed in 12 to 24 hours; otherwise, breast-feeding may be resumed within 24 to 48 hours after the last dose of treatment is completed if other dosage regimens are used. In a study of 3 patients that received a single 2 g oral dose, peak milk concentrations ranged between 50 and 60 mcg/mL at 2 to 4 hours after the dose. If breast-feeding were to continue, the estimated infant exposure during the next 48 hours would be 25.3 mg; if breast-feeding was interrupted for 12 hours, the estimated 48-hour exposure would be 9.8 mg, and if breast-feeding was interrupted for 24 hours, the estimated 48 hour exposure would be 3.5 mg. In studies of women receiving 600 mg/day, metronidazole milk concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 15.2 mcg/mL and in patients receiving 1,200 mg/day concentrations ranged from 9.02 to 15.52 mcg/mL. The mean milk:plasma ratio in both groups was approximately 1, and the mean plasma concentrations in the exposed infants were approximately 20% of the maternal plasma concentration. Depending on the indication, oral vancomycin, amoxicillin; clavulanate, ampicillin; sulbactam, or clindamycin (systemic or intravaginal) may be potential alternatives to consider during breast-feeding. Assess site of infection, patient factors, local susceptibility patterns, and specific microbial susceptibility before choosing an alternative agent. Vancomycin is excreted in breast milk; however, absorption from the GI tract of any ingested vancomycin would be minimal. Alternative antimicrobials that previous AAP recommendations considered as usually compatible with breast-feeding include clindamycin and penicillins.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Metronidazole is amebicidal, bactericidal, and trichomonicidal. Unionized metronidazole is readily taken up by passive diffusion and activated in the cytoplasm of susceptible anaerobic organisms and cells. Its selectivity for anaerobic bacteria is a result of the ability of these organisms to reduce metronidazole to its active form intracellularly. This process includes intracellular electron transport proteins such as ferredoxin, transfer of an electron to the nitro group of the metronidazole, and formation of a short-lived nitroso free radical. The electron transport proteins necessary for this reaction are found only in anaerobic bacteria. Due to the alteration of the metronidazole molecule, a concentration gradient is created and maintained which promotes the drug's intracellular transport. Reduced metronidazole and free radicals can interact with DNA leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and DNA degradation. This eventually results in bacterial cell death. Metronidazole is equally effective against dividing and nondividing cells. The precise mechanism of action is unclear.[28581] [52483]
     
    Metronidazole also has immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, and it has been used in patients with rosacea. The antimicrobial actions of metronidazole alter the bacterial metabolism of bile acids in the GI tract, decreasing pruritus in patients with cholestasis secondary to primary biliary cirrhosis.[24103]
     
    The susceptibility interpretive criteria for metronidazole are delineated by pathogen. The MICs are defined for anaerobes as susceptible at 8 mcg/mL or less, intermediate at 16 mcg/mL, and resistant at 32 mcg/mL or more.[63320] [63321]

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Metronidazole is administered orally, intravenously, intravaginally, and topically. Protein binding is less than 20%. Metronidazole is widely distributed into various body tissues and fluids including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pelvic tissue and peritoneal fluid, pancreas, colorectal tissue, bone, saliva, and gingival fluid. CSF concentrations of metronidazole are similar to plasma concentrations. Bactericidal concentrations of metronidazole have also been detected in pus from hepatic abscesses.
     
    Metronidazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation, oxidation, and glucuronide conjugation. The major metabolite is 2-hydroxymethyl metronidazole, which has some antibacterial and antiprotozoal activity (30% to 65% of metronidazole). The major route of elimination of metronidazole and its metabolites is via the urine (60% to 80% of the dose), with approximately 20% appearing as unchanged metronidazole. Fecal excretion accounts for 6% to 15% of the dose. Metronidazole is cleared by the kidneys at a rate of 10 mL/minute/1.73 m2. The mean elimination half-life is approximately 8 hours.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: none
    Although previously reported as an inhibitor of CYP3A4 based on assumptions inferred from isolated case reports, controlled in vitro and in vivo studies show that metronidazole does not significantly inhibit CYP3A4/5 activity. Additionally, a study in humans examined S-warfarin and tolbutamide as probes for the CYP2C9 isoenzyme. Metronidazole interacted with S-warfarin, but not tolbutamide. This lessens the likelihood of a potential CYP2C9 interaction, which was originally postulated. It is unknown whether metronidazole alters transport proteins.

    Oral Route

    Immediate-release formulations
    Metronidazole is well absorbed after oral administration (bioavailability more than 90%). Peak concentrations (Cmax) occur 1 to 2 hours after administration.
     
    Extended-release tablets
    Food increases the rate of absorption. The Cmax occurs approximately 4.6 and 6.8 hours after administration under fed and fasted conditions, respectively.

    Intravenous Route

    After IV administration, the plasma concentrations are proportional to the administered dose. An 8-hour IV infusion of 100 to 4,000 mg of metronidazole showed a linear relationship between dose and peak plasma concentration.

    Topical Route

    Topically applied metronidazole products are only minimally absorbed. Peak concentrations of the lotion are approximately 80 times lower than the peak concentrations of a single 250 mg oral dose. The mean Cmax and AUC are less than 1% of the value reported for a single 250 mg oral dose.

    Other Route(s)

    Intravaginal Route
    Intravaginally administered metronidazole is absorbed systemically; but peak serum concentrations (Cmax) and exposure (AUC) are 2% and 4%, respectively, of the concentrations achieved with 500 mg oral doses. The Cmax is achieved approximately 9.5 hours (range, 4 to 17 hours) after administration.