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  • CLASSES

    Anti-Parkinson Agents, MAO type B Inhibitors

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Selective and reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) Type B
    Used as an adjunct to levodopa; carbidopa therapy to treat "off" episodes in adults with Parkinson's disease
    Although MAO-B selectivity of the drug is high, patients should be instructed to avoid certain foods that contain very high amounts (i.e., more than 150 mg) of tyramine due to the potential for a tyramine reaction such as severe hypertension

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Xadago

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Xadago Oral Tab: 50mg, 100mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For adjunctive treatment to levodopa-carbidopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing 'off' episodes.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    50 mg per day PO initially. After 2 weeks, may increase to 100 mg PO once daily, based on individual need and tolerability. Max: 100 mg/day PO; higher doses have not been shown to provide additional benefit and increase the risk for adverse reactions. Coadministration of certain drugs may need to be avoided; review drug interactions. DISCONTINUATION: The 100 mg/day dose should be tapered by decreasing the dose to 50 mg/day for 1 week before stopping. LIMITATION OF USE: Safinamide has not been shown to be effective as monotherapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    100 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    100 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Children

    Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    Infants

    Not indicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A; score 5 to 6): No dosage adjustment needed.
    Moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B; score 7 to 9): Do not exceed 50 mg PO once daily. If a patient taking this dose progresses from moderate to severe hepatic impairment, discontinue the drug.
    Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C; score 10 to 15): Contraindicated.

    Renal Impairment

    No dosage adjustments are needed.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration
    Oral Solid Formulations

    Administer at the same time each day; the dose may be given with or without food.
    If a dose is missed, instruct the patient to take the next dose at the usual time on the following day.
    Food and drug interactions with safinamide can be serious. Patients should avoid foods/beverages containing large amounts of tyramine.

    STORAGE

    Xadago:
    - Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    General Information

    Safinamide therapy is contraindicated in patients with history of a hypersensitivity to safinamide. Reactions have included swelling of the tongue and oral mucosa, and dyspnea.

    Alcoholism, ethanol ingestion, hypertension, hypertensive crisis

    Safinamide may cause hypertension, exacerbate pre-existing hypertension, or cause hypertensive crisis. Monitor patients for new onset hypertension or hypertension that is not adequately controlled after starting safinamide. Dosage adjustments may be required if elevations in blood pressure are sustained. The recommended maximum dose of safinamide should not be exceeded because of the risk of hypertension, exacerbation of pre-existing hypertension, or hypertensive crisis. Monitor for hypertension if safinamide is co-administered with sympathomimetics, including prescription or nonprescription nasal, oral, and ophthalmic decongestants and cold preparations. Some medications are contraindicated with safinamide due to hypetensive risks; carefully review drug-drug interactions. Safinamide maintains selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition at manufacturer recommended doses, although MAO-B selectivity decreases in a dose-related manner as increases are made above the recommended daily dose. Safinamide is selective for MAO-B at recommended doses (50 to 100 mg/day) and can be used without dietary tyramine restriction. However, certain foods may contain very high amounts (i.e., 150 mg or greater) of tyramine and could potentially cause a hypertensive reaction in individual patients due to increased sensitivity to tyramine. Patients should be informed not to exceed the recommended dose and should be instructed to avoid tyramine-rich foods while receiving safinamide. Food sources considered to be high in tyramine and that may interact with MAO inhibitors in general include Stilton aged cheese, concentrated yeast extracts (e.g., Marmite), aged meats, and sauerkraut. Ethanol ingestion of alcoholic beverages with high tyramine content (e.g., tap beers) also may place patients at risk. Patients with alcoholism should generally avoid therapy with an MAO inhibitor. If a patient eats foods very rich in tyramine and does not feel well soon after eating, the patient should contact their healthcare provider. Patients should also be instructed to contact their healthcare provider if they experience severe headache, shortness of breath, palpitations, diaphoresis, chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of a significant hypertensive reaction or hypertensive crisis.

    MAOI therapy

    Drug interactions with drugs like safinamide can be serious. Review drug interactions carefully prior to prescription of safinamide. Concurrent use of safinamide with other MAOI therapy or other drugs that are potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase, including linezolid, is contraindicated. The combination of safinamide with other drugs having monoamine oxidase inhibitor activities may result in increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with other MAOIs. Other drugs are also contraindicated due to the potential risk for serotonin syndrome or other adverse effects, which includes, but is not limited to meperidine and selected other opioid drugs; selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs); tricyclic antidepressants and other cyclic antidepressants; triazolopyridine antidepressants; cyclobenzaprine; stimulants such as methylphenidate, amphetamines, and their derivatives; St. John’s wort; and dextromethorphan. In clinical trials, serotonin syndrome was reported in a patient treated with safinamide and an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI); therefore, use se the lowest effective dose of SSRIs in patients treated with concomitant safinamide.

    Coadministration with other CNS depressants, driving or operating machinery, narcolepsy, orthostatic hypotension, sleep apnea, sudden sleep onset

    As with other MAO inhibitors used in Parkinson's disease, clinical trial data suggest that orthostatic hypotension may occur when safinamide is added to levodopa/carbidopa treatment in some patients, particularly in early therapy or with dose titration; some patients may experience dizziness on standing up rapidly after sitting or lying down for prolonged periods. Because safinamide has the potential to cause drowsiness or dizziness, patients should be advised to use caution when driving or operating machinery or performing other tasks that require mental alertness until they know how the drug affects them. Some patients with Parkinson's disease have reported sudden sleep onset while engaged in activities of daily living including the operation of motor vehicles, which has sometimes resulted in accidents. In some cases, no warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness occurred, and some patients believed that they were alert immediately prior to the event. Some of these events have been reported more than 1 year after initiation of treatment. Monitor patients on safinamide for somnolence because some of the events occur well after initiation of treatment and patients may not acknowledge drowsiness or sleepiness until directly questioned about drowsiness or sleepiness during specific activities. Assess patients for conditions that may increase the risk for sudden sleep onset, such as a sleep disorder (e.g., narcolepsy, sleep apnea) or during coadministration with other CNS depressants. Discontinue safinamide therapy in patients who develop significant daytime sleepiness or episodes of falling asleep during activities that require active participation (e.g., driving a motor vehicle, conversations, eating). If a decision is made to continue these patients on safinamide, advise them to avoid driving and other potentially dangerous activities. There is insufficient information to establish that dose reduction will eliminate episodes of falling asleep while engaged in activities of daily living.

    Impulse control symptoms

    Some patients receiving medications that increase dopaminergic tone, including safinamide, have reported intense and uncontrollable urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, binge eating, intense urges to spend money, or other intense urges. Causality to dopaminergic agents has not been established; however, in some cases, the urges stopped after the dose was reduced or the drug was discontinued. Practitioners should inquire periodically about new or worsening impulse control symptoms in patients receiving safinamide. Likewise, patients should be instructed to report such changes while receiving safinamide. A dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered in those who experience these effects.

    Psychosis, schizophrenia

    Patients with a history of psychosis or psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) should generally not be treated with safinamide because agents that increase central dopaminergic activity, such as safinamide, may exacerbate psychosis. In addition, medications for treating psychosis that antagonize the effects of dopamine may cause an exacerbation of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Consider a dosage reduction or stopping safinamide if a patient develops hallucinations or psychotic-like behaviors while taking safinamide. Patients should be instructed to contact their healthcare provider if they experience new or worsening thought disturbances while receiving safinamide.

    Hepatic disease

    Safinamide should be used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease. Plasma concentrations of safinamide are increased in patients with hepatic impairment. Safinamide is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment. A reduced maximum daily dosage is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B). If a patient taking safinamide progresses from moderate to severe hepatic impairment, treatment with safinamide should be discontinued. No dosage adjustments are required in patients with mild hepatic impairment.

    Albinism, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, uveitis

    Periodically monitor for visual changes in patients with a history of retinal/macular degeneration, uveitis, inherited retinal conditions, family history of hereditary retinal disease, albinism, retinitis pigmentosa, or any active retinopathy (e.g., diabetic retinopathy). Retinal degeneration and loss of photoreceptor cells were observed in albino and pigmented rats administered safinamide orally in toxicity studies of up to 6 months in duration. Retinal scarring and cataracts were observed at all doses tested in albino rats administered safinamide orally for 2 years. Investigative studies were not able to identify a mechanism underlying the retinal toxicity; the relevance to humans is unknown.

    Abrupt discontinuation

    Because a withdrawal syndrome resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome (e.g., elevated temperature, muscular rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability) has been observed in some patients after the discontinuation of drugs that increase central dopaminergic activity, abrupt discontinuation of long-term treatment with safinamide is not recommended. The dosage should be reduced gradually when possible. When a patient is taking safinamide 100 mg/day, a taper to 50 mg/day for 1 week is recommended, when clinically feasible, before drug discontinuation.

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of safinamide use during human pregnancy; however, animal studies indicate that safinamide may cause fetal harm. Safinamide should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Developmental toxicity and teratogenic effects were observed when safinamide was administered to animals during pregnancy at clinically relevant doses. Developmental toxicity was observed at safinamide doses lower than those used clinically when the drug was administered during pregnancy with levodopa/carbidopa. In a rat pre-and postnatal development study, oral administration of mid and high doses of safinamide throughout pregnancy and lactation resulted in skin discoloration of the offspring, presumably from hepatobiliary toxicity, and decreased body weight and increased postnatal mortality in offspring occurred at the highest dose tested. In a rat fertility study in which males and females received oral safinamide prior to and during mating and continuing through early pregnancy in females, adverse effects on reproductive function were observed in both males (sperm abnormalities) and females (decreased corpora lutea, increased pre-implantation loss).

    Breast-feeding

    Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from safinamide, a decision should be made to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue safinamide, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. It is not known whether safinamide is present in human milk. Skin discoloration, presumably caused by hyperbilirubinemia resulting from hepatobiliary toxicity, was observed in rat pups indirectly exposed to safinamide through maternal milk during the lactation period. In addition, safinamide has the potential to interfere with proper lactation since similar agents, such as rasagiline and selegiline, can inhibit prolactin secretion. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    Geriatric

    During clinical trials of safinamide, approximately 38% of patients were 65 years of age and older, while 4% were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between geriatric and younger adults, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between geriatric and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of geriatric patients cannot be ruled out. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, antiparkinson medications may cause significant confusion, restlessness, delirium, dyskinesia, nausea, dizziness, hallucinations, and agitation. In addition, there is an increased risk of postural hypotension and falls, particularly during concurrent use of antihypertensive medications.

    Children, infants

    The safety and effectiveness of safinamide in pediatric patients, including infants, children, and adolescents, have not been established. No juvenile toxicity studies have been performed in animals.

    Dental work, surgery

    Patients should inform their healthcare provider of MAOI treatment prior to pursuing dental work or surgery. Although hypertensive reactions are not expected due to the MAO-B selectivity of safinamide at therapeutic doses, caution is recommended during concurrent use of the drug with any sympathomimetic agent (e.g., epinephrine, cocaine) or other medication that might potentially interact that may be used in dental procedures or surgery.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    hypertensive crisis / Early / Incidence not known
    serotonin syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like symptoms / Delayed / Incidence not known
    retinopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    dyskinesia / Delayed / 17.0-21.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 5.0-7.0
    orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    sudden sleep onset / Delayed / Incidence not known
    psychosis / Early / Incidence not known
    hallucinations / Early / Incidence not known
    hypertension / Early / Incidence not known
    dyspnea / Early / Incidence not known
    edema / Delayed / Incidence not known
    impulse control symptoms / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cataracts / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    nausea / Early / 3.0-6.0
    insomnia / Early / 1.0-4.0
    anxiety / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    dyspepsia / Early / 0-2.0
    cough / Delayed / 2.0-2.0
    drowsiness / Early / Incidence not known
    headache / Early / Incidence not known
    rash / Early / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as isometheptene. If concomitant use of safinamide and isometheptene is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Acetaminophen; Propoxyphene: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Alfentanil: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Almotriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Alpelisib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of alpelisib with safinamide due to increased exposure to alpelisib and the risk of alpelisib-related toxicity. If concomitant use is unavoidable, closely monitor for alpelisib-related adverse reactions. Alpelisib is a BCRP substrate and safinamide is a BCRP inhibitor.
    Alprazolam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Amitriptyline: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Amoxapine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with amoxapine due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of amoxapine.
    Amphetamine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Amphetamines: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Anxiolytics; Sedatives; and Hypnotics: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Aripiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as epinephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and epinephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Aspirin, ASA; Carisoprodol; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Aspirin, ASA; Oxycodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Atomoxetine: (Contraindicated) The use of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (such as atomoxetine) with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is contraindicated. At least 2 weeks should elapse between the discontinuation of a drug with MAO inhibiting activity and the start of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or vice-versa. Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors potentiate certain catecholamines by inhibiting neuronal reuptake. Reactions with MAOIs may include confusion, seizures, and severe hypertension as well as less severe symptoms.
    Atropine; Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as safinamide should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    atypical antipsychotic: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Barbiturates: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Belladonna; Opium: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Benzodiazepines: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Benzoic Acid; Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as safinamide should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Benzphetamine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Berotralstat: (Major) Reduce the berotralstat dose to 110 mg PO once daily in patients chronically taking safinamide. Concurrent use may increase berotralstat exposure and the risk of adverse effects. Berotralstat is a BCRP substrate and safinamide is a BCRP inhibitor. Coadministration with another BCRP inhibitor increased berotralstat exposure by 69%.
    Brexpiprazole: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Brompheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Brompheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Buprenorphine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Butabarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Butorphanol: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbetapentane; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Moderate) Safinamide and carbidopa; levodopa are indicated for use in combination; however, there is the possibility of new onset dyskinesias or exacerbation of pre-existing dyskinesias. Patients should be advised to contact their health care provider if they notice new or worsening dyskinesias while taking these medicines together.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) Safinamide and carbidopa; levodopa are indicated for use in combination; however, there is the possibility of new onset dyskinesias or exacerbation of pre-existing dyskinesias. Patients should be advised to contact their health care provider if they notice new or worsening dyskinesias while taking these medicines together.
    Carbinoxamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of cenobamate and safinamide. Concurrent use may result in additive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents, such as safinamide, have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Cetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with safinamide should generally be avoided because of the possibility of additive sedative effects. Dopaminergic agents have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with safinamide should generally be avoided because of the possibility of additive sedative effects. Dopaminergic agents have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlophedianol; Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chloral Hydrate: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Chlorcyclizine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Chlordiazepoxide: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Chlorpheniramine; Codeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Chlorpromazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Citalopram: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Clemastine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Clomipramine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Clonazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Clorazepate: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Clozapine: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Codeine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Codeine; Promethazine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Cyclizine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Cyclobenzaprine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with cyclobenzaprine due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of cyclobenzaprine.
    Cyproheptadine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Desipramine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Desvenlafaxine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
    Deutetrabenazine: (Contraindicated) Deutetrabenazine use is contraindicated in patients who are receiving or have received MAOI therapy within the past 14 days. The major metabolites of deutetrabenazine (alpha-dihydrotetrabenazine [HTBZ] and beta-HTBZ) are reversible inhibitors of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Inhibition of VMAT2 results in decreased uptake of monoamines into synaptic vesicles and depletion of monoamine stores.
    Dexbrompheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dexchlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dextroamphetamine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Dextromethorphan: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites.
    Diazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Diethylpropion: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as diethylpropion. If concomitant use of safinamide and diethylpropion is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dimenhydrinate: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Dobutamine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as dobutamine. Because dobutamine is only administered in a hospital or medical facility, your health care provider will monitor you for hypertensive reactions while you are receiving safinamide and dobutamine together.
    Dopamine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as dopamine. If concomitant use of safinamide and dopamine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Doxapram: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as doxapram. If concomitant use of safinamide and doxapram is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Doxepin: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Doxylamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Doxylamine; Pyridoxine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Droperidol: (Major) The concurrent use of safinamide and droperidol should be avoided if possible. The beneficial effects of safinamide are mediated by monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B activity which increases central dopamine availability and droperidol is a dopamine antagonist. If these agents must be used together, monitor for exacerbation of Parkinson's disease symptoms.
    Duloxetine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
    Eletriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Ephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as ephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and ephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as ephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and ephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as epinephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and epinephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Escitalopram: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Esketamine: (Major) Because of the possibility of additive sedative effects, caution is advisable during concurrent use of dopaminergic agents, such as safinamide, and CNS depressants, such as esketamine. Dopaminergic agents have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Patients who have received a dose of esketamine should be instructed not to drive or engage in other activities requiring complete mental alertness until the next day after a restful sleep.
    Estazolam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Eszopiclone: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Ethanol: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Such events may increase when safinamide is combined with alcohol or other CNS depressants. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of alcohol. Ethanol ingestion of alcoholic beverages with high tyramine content (e.g., tap beers) also may place some patients at risk for hypertension. If a patient ingests beverages very rich in tyramine and does not feel well soon after, the patient should contact their healthcare provider.
    Fenfluramine: (Contraindicated) Coadministration of fenfluramine with safinamide or within 14 days after discontinuation of treatment with safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome.
    Fentanyl: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Fluoxetine: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Fluphenazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Flurazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Fluvoxamine: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Food: (Major) Safinamide is selective for MAO-B at recommended doses (50 to 100 mg/day) and can generally be used without dietary tyramine restriction. Patients should be informed not to exceed the recommended safinamide dose and to follow all dietary instructions. Certain foods may contain very high amounts (i.e., 150 mg or greater) of tyramine and could potentially cause a hypertensive reaction in individual patients with increased sensitivity to tyramine and are best avoided or limited. Food sources considered to be high in tyramine and that may interact with MAO inhibitors in general include Stilton aged cheese, concentrated yeast extracts (e.g., Marmite), aged meats, and sauerkraut. Ethanol ingestion of alcoholic beverages with high tyramine content (e.g., tap beers) also may place patients at risk. If a patient eats foods very rich in tyramine and does not feel well soon after eating, the patient should contact their healthcare provider. Patients should also be instructed to contact their healthcare provider if they experience severe headache, shortness of breath, palpitations, diaphoresis, chest pain or other symptoms suggestive of a significant hypertensive reaction or hypertensive crisis.
    Frovatriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Gabapentin: (Major) Initiate gabapentin at the lowest recommended dose and monitor patients for symptoms of sedation and somnolence during coadministration of gabapentin and safinamide. Concomitant use of gabapentin with safinamide may cause additive CNS depression. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents, such as safinamide, have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Haloperidol: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, haloperidol and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to haloperidol. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movement, moods, or behaviors.
    Homatropine; Hydrocodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Hydrocodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Hydromorphone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Hydroxyzine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Hyoscyamine; Methenamine; Methylene Blue; Phenyl Salicylate; Sodium Biphosphate: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as safinamide should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) Safinamide at the 100 mg dose and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which could increase plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates such as imatinib. Monitor patients for increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of BCRP substrates during concurrent use of safinamide, particularly the 100 mg dose.
    Imipramine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Isocarboxazid: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of safinamide with other monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of other MAOIs within 2 weeks of taking safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. Serotonin syndrome has also been reported during coadministration of MAOIs, presumably due to additive effects on central serotonin levels.
    Isoniazid, INH: (Major) Concurrent use of safinamide and isoniazid may increase the risk of a hypertensive crisis. Isoniazid has monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity and safinamide is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) type B. Monoamine oxidase type A is the primary enzyme in the gastrointestinal tract, and is responsible for the breakdown of dietary amines such as tyramine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited by an MAOI, tyramine is absorbed systemically and may result in a hypertensive crisis. Although safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B, there is a risk of hypertension during ingestion of substances high in tyramine or during concurrent use of other drugs with MAOI activity such as isoniazid, since the MAOI-B selectivity of safinamide decreases with increasing dosages.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Concurrent use of safinamide and isoniazid may increase the risk of a hypertensive crisis. Isoniazid has monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity and safinamide is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) type B. Monoamine oxidase type A is the primary enzyme in the gastrointestinal tract, and is responsible for the breakdown of dietary amines such as tyramine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited by an MAOI, tyramine is absorbed systemically and may result in a hypertensive crisis. Although safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B, there is a risk of hypertension during ingestion of substances high in tyramine or during concurrent use of other drugs with MAOI activity such as isoniazid, since the MAOI-B selectivity of safinamide decreases with increasing dosages.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Concurrent use of safinamide and isoniazid may increase the risk of a hypertensive crisis. Isoniazid has monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity and safinamide is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) type B. Monoamine oxidase type A is the primary enzyme in the gastrointestinal tract, and is responsible for the breakdown of dietary amines such as tyramine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited by an MAOI, tyramine is absorbed systemically and may result in a hypertensive crisis. Although safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B, there is a risk of hypertension during ingestion of substances high in tyramine or during concurrent use of other drugs with MAOI activity such as isoniazid, since the MAOI-B selectivity of safinamide decreases with increasing dosages.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as isoproterenol. If concomitant use of safinamide and isoproterenol is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation, somnolence, and serotonin syndrome during coadministration of lasmiditan and safinamide. Inform patients taking this combination of the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression and serotonin syndrome, particularly after a dose increase or the addition of other serotonergic medications to an existing regimen. Dopaminergic agents, such as safinamide, have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment. Discontinue all serotonergic agents and initiate symptomatic treatment if serotonin syndrome occurs.
    Lemborexant: (Moderate) Monitor for excessive sedation and somnolence during coadministration of lemborexant and safinamide. Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and safinamide may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS effects. The risk of next-day impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if lemborexant is taken with other CNS depressants. Dopaminergic agents have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Levocetirizine: (Moderate) Concurrent use of cetirizine/levocetirizine with safinamide should generally be avoided because of the possibility of additive sedative effects. Dopaminergic agents have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Prescribers should re-assess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Levodopa: (Moderate) Safinamide and carbidopa; levodopa are indicated for use in combination; however, there is the possibility of new onset dyskinesias or exacerbation of pre-existing dyskinesias. Patients should be advised to contact their health care provider if they notice new or worsening dyskinesias while taking these medicines together.
    Levomilnacipran: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
    Levorphanol: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Linezolid: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of linezolid with safinamide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B, or use of linezolid within 2 weeks of taking safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Serotonin syndrome has also been reported when linezolid is given with serotonergic agents, including monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which can potentiate central serotonin levels.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Lorazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Loxapine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, loxapine and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to loxapine. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movement, moods, or behaviors.
    Lumateperone: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Maprotiline: (Contraindicated) According to the manufacturer of safinamide, the concurrent use of safinamide and heterocyclic antidepressants, such as maprotiline, is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of maprotiline.
    Meclizine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Meperidine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Meperidine; Promethazine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids. (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Mephobarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Meprobamate: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Mesoridazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Methadone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Methamphetamine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with amphetamines due to the risk of serotonin syndrome or hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as amphetamines. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Methenamine; Sodium Acid Phosphate; Methylene Blue; Hyoscyamine: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as safinamide should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Methohexital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Methotrexate: (Moderate) Safinamide at the 100 mg dose and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which could increase plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates such as methotrexate. Monitor patients for increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of BCRP substrates during concurrent use of safinamide, particularly the 100 mg dose.
    Methylene Blue: (Major) Concurrent use of intravenous (IV) methylene blue and MAOIs such as safinamide should generally be avoided due to the potential for serotonin syndrome. If emergent treatment with methylene blue is required in a patient receiving an MAOI it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI and monitor the patient for symptoms of CNS toxicity for two weeks or until 24 hours after the last dose of methylene blue, whichever comes first. During non-emergent use of methylene blue, it is advisable to discontinue the MAOI at least 2 weeks prior to methylene blue treatment, but also taking into consideration the half-life of the MAOI being discontinued. Because safinamide is a selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses, an interaction may be less likely to occur than with other traditional MAOIs. Methylene blue is a thiazine dye that is also a potent, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of serotonin in the brain (MAO-A). Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported, primarily following administration of IV methylene blue (1 to 8 mg/kg) as a visualizing agent in patients receiving serotonergic agents.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Contraindicated) Safinamide, a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is contraindicated for use with methylphenidate and its derivatives due to the risk of serotonin syndrome and hypertensive crisis. The manufacturer of safinamide recommends that a period of at least 14 days elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of serotonergic agents. Hypertensive crisis has been reported in patients taking recommended doses of selective MAO-B inhibitors and sympathomimetic medications, such as methylphenidate. Safinamide can cause hypertension or exacerbate existing hypertension, particularly at daily dosages exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
    Metoclopramide: (Major) The concurrent use of safinamide and metoclopramide should be avoided if possible. The beneficial effects of safinamide are mediated by monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B activity which increases central dopamine availability and metoclopramide is a dopamine antagonist. In addition, metoclopramide may cause extrapyramidal effects, including pseudoparkinsonism. If these agents must be used together, monitor for exacerbation of Parkinson's disease symptoms.
    Midazolam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Midodrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as midodrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and midodrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Milnacipran: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
    Mitoxantrone: (Moderate) Safinamide at the 100 mg dose and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which could increase plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates such as mitoxantrone. Monitor patients for increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of BCRP substrates during concurrent use of safinamide, particularly the 100 mg dose.
    Molindone: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, safinamide and molindone may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to molindone. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movement, moods, or behaviors.
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of safinamide with other monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of other MAOIs within 2 weeks of taking safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. Serotonin syndrome has also been reported during coadministration of MAOIs, presumably due to additive effects on central serotonin levels.
    Morphine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Morphine; Naltrexone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Nabilone: (Major) Because of the possibility of additive sedative effects, caution is advisable during concurrent use of dopaminergic agents, such as safinamide, and CNS depressants. Dopaminergic agents have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Nalbuphine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Naratriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Norepinephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as norepinephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and norepinephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Nortriptyline: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Oliceridine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Opiate Agonists: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Opiate Agonists-Antagonists: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Oxazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Oxycodone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Oxymorphone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Ozanimod: (Contraindicated) Coadministration of ozanimod with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, like safinamide, is contraindicated. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of ozanimod and initiation of treatment with safinamide. Metabolites of ozanimod may inhibit MAO. The potential for a clinical interaction with MAO inhibitors has not been studied; however, the increased risk of nonselective MAO inhibition may lead to a hypertensive crisis. In addition, MAOB inhibitors, such as safinamide, may decrease exposure of the active metabolites of ozanimod.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Paroxetine: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Pentazocine: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Pentazocine; Naloxone: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Pentobarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Perphenazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA. (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Phendimetrazine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phendimetrazine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phendimetrazine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Phenelzine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of safinamide with other monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of other MAOIs within 2 weeks of taking safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. Serotonin syndrome has also been reported during coadministration of MAOIs, presumably due to additive effects on central serotonin levels.
    Phenobarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Phenothiazines: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Phentermine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phentermine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phentermine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phentermine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phentermine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Pimozide: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, pimozide and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to pimozide. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movement, moods, or behaviors.
    Pregabalin: (Major) Initiate pregabalin at the lowest recommended dose and monitor patients for symptoms of sedation and somnolence during coadministration of pregabalin and safinamide. Concomitant use of pregabalin with safinamide may cause additive CNS depression. Educate patients about the risks and symptoms of excessive CNS depression. Dopaminergic agents, such as safinamide, have also been associated with sudden sleep onset during activities of daily living such as driving, which has resulted in accidents in some cases. Reassess patients for drowsiness or sleepiness regularly throughout treatment, especially since events may occur well after the start of treatment.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as epinephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and epinephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Primidone: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Prochlorperazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Promethazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Contraindicated) Dextromethorphan prescription products are contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or in patients who have taken MAOIs within the preceding 14 days, due to the risk of serious and possibly fatal drug interactions, including serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days after stopping dextromethorphan before starting an MAOI, including safinamide. Brief episodes of psychosis or bizarre behavior have also been reported with this combination. Patients should read nonprescription product labels carefully. Before initiating an MAOI after using other serotoninergic agents, a sufficient amount of time must be allowed for clearance of the serotoninergic agent and its active metabolites. (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as phenylephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and phenylephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Propoxyphene: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Protriptyline: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers. (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide concurrently with sympathomimetic medications, such as pseudoephedrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and pseudoephedrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Quazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Quetiapine: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Racepinephrine: (Moderate) Severe hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crisis, have been reported in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as safinamide, and sympathomimetic medications, such as racepinephrine. If concomitant use of safinamide and racepinephrine is necessary, monitor for hypertension and hypertensive crisis.
    Ramelteon: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as Ramelteon.
    Rasagiline: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of Safinamide with medications that inhibit monoamine oxidase B, such as rasagiline, or use of rasagiline within 2 weeks of taking safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. Serotonin syndrome has also been reported during co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which can potentiate central serotonin levels.
    Remifentanil: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Remimazolam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Rimegepant: (Major) Avoid coadministration of rimegepant with safinamide; concurrent use may increase rimegepant exposure. Rimegepant is a substrate of BCRP and safinamide is a BCRP inhibitor.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Rizatriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Rosuvastatin: (Moderate) Safinamide at the 100 mg dose and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which could increase plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates such as rosuvastatin. Monitor patients for increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of BCRP substrates during concurrent use of safinamide, particularly the 100 mg dose.
    Rosuvastatin; Ezetimibe: (Moderate) Safinamide at the 100 mg dose and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which could increase plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates such as rosuvastatin. Monitor patients for increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of BCRP substrates during concurrent use of safinamide, particularly the 100 mg dose.
    Secobarbital: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Sedating H1-blockers: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Selegiline: (Contraindicated) Both safinamide and selegiline are selective monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (MAO-B inhibitors), and concurrent use is contraindicated. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of selegiline and initiation of treatment with safinamide. After stopping treatment with safinamide, a time period equal to 4 to 5 half-lives of safinamide or any active metabolite should elapse before starting therapy with selegiline. Hypertensive crisis has occurred in patients receiving selective MAO-B inhibitors simultaneously. Concurrent use may also represent duplicative therapy.
    Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
    Serotonin-Receptor Agonists: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Sertraline: (Major) The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is generally avoided; however, the manufacturer of safinamide recommends monitoring for serotonin syndrome and using the lowest effective dose of the SSRI during concurrent use. During clinical trial evaluation of safinamide, 1 case of serotonin syndrome occurred during co-administration with an SSRI. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Solriamfetol: (Contraindicated) The concurrent use of solriamfetol, a noradrenergic drugs, and safinamide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, or use of solriamfetol within 14 days of safinamide is contraindicated due to the increased risk for hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure. In addition, solriamfetol is a central dopaminergic drug and concurrent use with other dopaminergic drugs, such as safinamide, has not been studied.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with St. John's Wort due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of St. John's Wort. Patients should be instructed to discuss the use of any vitamins or herbal supplements with their heatlh care provider prior to the initiation of any new medication.
    Sufentanil: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Sulfasalazine: (Moderate) Safinamide at the 100 mg dose and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which could increase plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates such as sulfasalazine. Monitor patients for increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of BCRP substrates during concurrent use of safinamide, particularly the 100 mg dose.
    Sumatriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Suvorexant: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as suvorexant.
    Talazoparib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of safinamide with talazoparib due to increased talazoparib exposure. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor for an increase in talazoparib-related adverse reactions. Talazoparib is a BCRP substrate and safinamide is a BCRP inhibitor. The effect of concomitant administration of BCRP inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of talazoparib has not been studied; however, BCRP inhibitors may increase talazoparib exposure.
    Tapentadol: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Tasimelteon: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as tasimelteon.
    Temazepam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Tetrabenazine: (Contraindicated) Tetrabenazine use is contraindicated in patients who are receiving or have received a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, such as safinamide, within the past 14 days. The major metabolites of tetrabenazine (alpha-dihydrotetrabenazine [HTBZ] and beta-HTBZ) are reversible inhibitors of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Inhibition of VMAT2 results in decreased uptake of monoamines into synaptic vesicles and depletion of monoamine stores.
    Thiethylperazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Thiopental: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as barbiturates.
    Thioridazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Thiothixene: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, thiothixene and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to thiothixene. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movement, moods, or behaviors.
    Topotecan: (Major) Avoid coadministration of safinamide with oral topotecan due to increased topotecan exposure; safinamide may be administered with intravenous topotecan. Oral topotecan is a substrate of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) and safinamide is a BCRP inhibitor. Coadministration increases the risk of topotecan-related adverse reactions.
    Tramadol: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of safinamide with opioids is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Allow at least 14 days between discontinuation of safinamide and initiation of treatment with opioids.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of safinamide with other monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of other MAOIs within 2 weeks of taking safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of increased blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis. Serotonin syndrome has also been reported during coadministration of MAOIs, presumably due to additive effects on central serotonin levels.
    Trazodone: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with trazodone due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of trazodone.
    Triazolam: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as benzodiazepines.
    Tricyclic antidepressants: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Trifluoperazine: (Major) Due to opposing effects on central dopaminergic activity, phenothiazines and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. Avoid concurrent use if possible and consider an atypical antipsychotic as an alternative to the phenothiazine if appropriate. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for changes in movements, moods, or behaviors.
    Trimipramine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of a TCA.
    Triprolidine: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of other sedating medications, such as sedating H1-blockers.
    Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan: (Major) Avoid use together if possible. The combination of tryptophan supplements and safinamide may lead to increased levels of serotonin and serotonin syndrome. Tryptophan is a serotonin precursor. Safinamide is a MAO-B inhibitor. In the postmarketing period, potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported in patients treated with selected serotonergic agents concomitantly with selective MAO-B inhibitors. There are also reports of tryptophan and MAO inhibitor interactions in the literature.
    Ubrogepant: (Major) Limit the initial and second dose of ubrogepant to 50 mg if coadministered with safinamide. Concurrent use may increase ubrogepant exposure and the risk of adverse effects. Ubrogepant is a substrate of the BCRP and P-gp drug transporters; safinamide is a BCRP and P-gp inhibitor.
    Valbenazine: (Major) Avoid the use of valbenazine with safinamide if possible. Safinamide is a selective inhibitor of MAO type B (MAO-B), which results in an increased bioavailability of dopamine in the brain, while the therapeutic effect of valbenazine is thought to occur through inhibition of dopamine release. Concomitant use of valbenazine and safinamide may result in an attenuated treatment effect of valbenazine or safinamide.
    Venlafaxine: (Contraindicated) Safinamide is contraindicated for use with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death. At least 14 days should elapse between the discontinuation of safinamide and the initiation of an SNRI.
    Vilazodone: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of vilazodone and safinamide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), or use of vilazodone within 2 weeks of stopping safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Viloxazine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of viloxazine with safinamide or within two weeks after discontinuing safinamide is contraindicated due to the risk for hypertensive crisis.
    Vortioxetine: (Contraindicated) Concurrent use of vortioxetine and safinamide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), or use of safinamide within 2 weeks of stopping vortioxetine is contraindicated due to the risk of serotonin syndrome. Conversely, at least 21 days should elapse after stopping vortioxetine before initiating safinamide. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the rapid development of hyperthermia, hypertension, myoclonus, rigidity, autonomic instability, mental status changes (e.g., delirium or coma), and in rare cases, death.
    Zaleplon: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.
    Ziprasidone: (Moderate) Monitor for movement disorders, unusual changes in moods or behavior, and diminished effectiveness of the atypical antipsychotic or safinamide during coadministration. Due to mutually opposing effects on dopamine, atypical antipsychotics and safinamide may interfere with the effectiveness of each other. In general, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to interfere with safinamide than traditional antipsychotics. The Beers Criteria recognize quetiapine and clozapine as exceptions to the general recommendation to avoid all antipsychotics in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
    Zolmitriptan: (Moderate) Safinamide and serotonin-receptor agonists, also known as triptans, should be used together with caution. Serotonin syndrome has been reported during administration of serotonin-receptor agonists and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Since safinamide selectively inhibits MAO-B at recommended doses, no interaction with serotonin-receptor agonists would be expected with normal prescription use. However, monitoring for serotonin-related side effects is advisable since the potential for serotonin syndrome exists. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue all serotonergic agents and institute appropriate treatment.
    Zolpidem: (Moderate) Dopaminergic medications, including safinamide, may cause a sudden onset of somnolence which sometimes has resulted in motor vehicle accidents. Patients may not perceive warning signs, such as excessive drowsiness, or they may report feeling alert immediately prior to the event. Because of possible additive effects, advise patients about the potential for increased somnolence during concurrent use of safinamide with other sedating medications, such as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of safinamide use during human pregnancy; however, animal studies indicate that safinamide may cause fetal harm. Safinamide should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Developmental toxicity and teratogenic effects were observed when safinamide was administered to animals during pregnancy at clinically relevant doses. Developmental toxicity was observed at safinamide doses lower than those used clinically when the drug was administered during pregnancy with levodopa/carbidopa. In a rat pre-and postnatal development study, oral administration of mid and high doses of safinamide throughout pregnancy and lactation resulted in skin discoloration of the offspring, presumably from hepatobiliary toxicity, and decreased body weight and increased postnatal mortality in offspring occurred at the highest dose tested. In a rat fertility study in which males and females received oral safinamide prior to and during mating and continuing through early pregnancy in females, adverse effects on reproductive function were observed in both males (sperm abnormalities) and females (decreased corpora lutea, increased pre-implantation loss).

    Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from safinamide, a decision should be made to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue safinamide, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. It is not known whether safinamide is present in human milk. Skin discoloration, presumably caused by hyperbilirubinemia resulting from hepatobiliary toxicity, was observed in rat pups indirectly exposed to safinamide through maternal milk during the lactation period. In addition, safinamide has the potential to interfere with proper lactation since similar agents, such as rasagiline and selegiline, can inhibit prolactin secretion. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Safinamide is a highly selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitor and inhibits MAO-B with more than 1,000-fold selectivity over MAO-A. In clinical studies, complete inhibition (greater than 90%) of MAO-B was measured at doses above 20 mg. The relative MAO-B selectivity of safinamide decreases above the highest recommended dose of 100 mg/day. The precise mechanism of action of safinamide in treating "off" episodes in Parkinson's disease is unknown; however, one mechanism is believed to be related to its MAO-B inhibitory activity, which causes an increase in dopamine levels centrally. The elevated dopamine levels and subsequent increased dopaminergic activity are likely to mediate the beneficial effects of safinamide.
     
    MAO is classified into two major catabolic enzymes, type A and B, which are located in mitochondrial membranes throughout the body in nerve terminals, brain, liver and intestinal mucosa. The neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine are primarily catabolized by MAO-A and dopamine is primarily catabolized by MAO-B. In addition to their role in the catabolism of monoamines in the CNS, MAOs are also important in the catabolism of exogenous amines found in a variety of foods and drugs. MAO in the gastrointestinal tract is primarily type A, and provides protection from systemic absorption of exogenous amines with vasopressor actions, such as tyramine, which can cause hypertensive crisis if absorbed intact. In a tyramine challenge study, safinamide produced a distinct but relatively small increase in tyramine sensitivity to increase blood pressure. The results suggest that safinamide at a dose of 50 mg or 100 mg is relatively selective for inhibiting MAO-B and can be used without dietary tyramine restriction. However, due to the potential severity of a hypertensive crisis, patients should be advised to avoid certain foods (e.g., aged cheese) containing a very large amount of tyramine (i.e., more than 150 mg) while taking recommended doses of safinamide.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Safinamide is administered orally. Safinamide is not highly protein bound; however, there is a large volume of distribution. Safinamide is extensively metabolized in the liver. There are 3 main metabolic pathways; however, none of the currently identified metabolites have pharmacologic activity. One metabolic pathway occurs through oxidation to produce safinamide acid (NW-1153), the second pathway occurs through oxidative cleavage to form O-debenzylated safinamide (NW-1199), and the third pathway involves oxidative cleavage to form an N-dealkylated acid (NW-1689) from either safinamide or safinamide acid, which then undergoes further conjugation. The N-dealkylated acid is the main circulating metabolite in human plasma, exceeding the exposure of the parent by 161%. Only about 5% of the drug is eliminated unchanged, mainly in urine. Inactive metabolites constitute 76% of a safinamide dose recovered in the urine. The terminal half-life is 20 to 26 hours.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: BCRP
    Safinamide and its major metabolite may inhibit intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). There is a potential for increased plasma concentrations of BCRP substrates. CYP isoenzymes have only a minor role in the overall biotransformation of safinamide. Safinamide is not a substrate of P-gp. Safinamide and its metabolites did not inhibit P-gp or other transporters such as OCT2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, BSEP, or OAT1/3/4. Safinamide and the N-dealkylated acid metabolite may inhibit BCRP at the 100 mg dose. Drug interaction studies with ketoconazole, levodopa, caffeine (CYP1A2 substrate) and midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate) did not demonstrate any clinically significant effects on the pharmacokinetic profile of safinamide. Safinamide did not demonstrate clinically significant effects on the kinetic profile of levodopa or CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 substrates.

    Oral Route

    Following oral administration, the absolute bioavailability is 95% and first pass metabolism is negligible. The time to maximum concentrations (Tmax) occurs between 2 and 3 hours after a dose. Administration with food slightly delays the Tmax; however, the AUC and maximum concentration (Cmax) are not affected. Therefore, the drug may be administered without regard to meals. Steady state is reached within 5 to 6 days.